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The BREAK-UP of YUGOSLAVIA. Josip Broz Tito “Brotherhood and Unity”. Slovene/Catholic 91% Croat/Catholic 3% Serb/E Ortho 2%. Croat/Catholic 78% Serb/E Ortho 12%. Muslims (43.7%) Croats/Catholic (17.3%) Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %). Serb/ E Ortho 63% Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%

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Josip broz tito brotherhood and unity l.jpg
Josip Broz Tito“Brotherhood andUnity”


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Slovene/Catholic 91%

Croat/Catholic 3%

Serb/E Ortho 2%

Croat/Catholic 78%

Serb/E Ortho 12%

Muslims (43.7%)

Croats/Catholic (17.3%)

Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %)

Serb/ E Ortho 63%

Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%

Albanian/Muslim 14%

Hungarian/Catholic 4%

Bosnia: 40% of

urban couples

ethnically mixed

Patterns of Ethnic Settlement

Facilitated the Conflict and Break-up

66% Macedonian/E Ortho

23% Albanian/Muslim

2% Serb/E Ortho

4% Turk/Muslim


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Key to the conflict

  • World underestimated

    • the power and violence of appeals to ethnicity and nationalism

  • Milosevic

    • purged moderates

    • played upon old fears/animosities

    • engaged in specific policies designed to

      • perpetuate the fear and

      • SEGREGATE the populations and REDRAW national boundaries to their own advantage

  • specifically calculated the West’s inability/reluctance to get involved


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Which is a more appropriate goal? with USSR

To protect state sovereignty? Borders?

To allow all groups to have self-determination and independent nations?


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Bosnia with USSR

  • Geographically it’s in the middle

    • Territory was desirable for its access to the Adriatic Sea and for strategic reasons

  • It was an example of a truly multi-ethnic society with no majority

    • Muslims (43.7%)

    • Croats (17.3%)

    • Serbs (31.4 %)

  • The population consisted of large ethnic groups

    • Linked to Serbia and Croatia

    • Serbia and Croatia wanted these people and their lands to join Serbia and Croatia respectively, rather than be in a multi-ethnic Bosnia



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    IRONY OF ETHNIC CLEANSING with USSR

    • Ethnic cleansing and mass murder produced ethnically pure territorial units

      • ultimately produces NEATER maps on which peace settlement could be worked

        • allowing the safe areas to fall got rid of enclaves that cluttered the map

      • world leaders denounce ethnic cleansing BUT in the end BACK RESULTS which bring peace


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    Before the War with USSR

    After Dayton Accords


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    BOSNIA with USSR

    • Declares independence, too

      • Bosnian Serbs

        • declare an independent Serb state and lay siege to Sarajevo, claiming the city as its capital

        • Yugoslav artillery shell Bosnia/Sarajevo—providing support to Serb irregulars who engage in ethnic cleansing of Bosnia

        • 1000 Serbs shells a day hitting Sarajveo

        • 3,777 hit in 16 hours on July 23, 1993


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    VUKOVAR with USSR

    Multi-ethnic city bordering Croatia and Serbia: city reduced from 50,000 to 15,000


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    Safe Areas: what were they supposed to be? with USSR

    Srebrenica, Tuzla, Zepa, Sarajevo, Gorazde








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    CAMPS at Omarska with USSR


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    What is the link between nationalism and human rights in this region?

    Any parallels to the terror in Argentina?


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    Back to original dilemma… this region?

    What are the conflicting values?


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    Dayton Peace Accord this region?

    • Single Bosnia state (country)

      • divided into Bosnia Croat-Muslim Federation and Bosnian Serb Republic (2 republics)

      • joint presidency

      • free elections

        • END up w/ Bosnia ethnic enclaves each elect strong nationalist governments

    • NATO implementation force (IFOR) to enforce provisions and ensure elections

    • War crime tribunal


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    Before the War this region?

    After Dayton Accords


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    International Role in Yugoslavia this region?

    Neo-isolationist or Internationalist?

    Cooperative or Military Interventionist?


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    International Role in Yugoslavia this region?

    • Sept 1991

      • UN arms embargo on Yugoslavia

    • Oct 1991

      • Sec’y General sends special envoy (Vance)

      • negotiate a short cease-fire

    • Feb 1992

      • Deploy UNPROFOR (14,000 soldiers)

        • to ensure that areas vacated by Serbian army are protected

        • assist humanitarian agencies

        • assist displaced persons in getting home


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    • October 1992 this region?

      • UN declares no-fly zones for Serbian planes over Bosnia and send monitors

    • November 1992

      • send UN troops to Macedonia (1st preventive action ever)

    • February 1993

      • establish International Criminal tribunal

    • May 1993

      • declare Sarajevo and 5 other areas as “safe areas”

        • should be free of armed attacks...


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    • June 1993 this region?

      • increase UNPROFOR size

      • authorize use of force (including air strikes)

      • IN REPLY to attacks on any “safe area”

    • Feb. 1994

      • NATO authorizes air strikes to deter attacks on civilians in Sarajevo

    • April 1994

      • Contact Group forms to draw up peaceful settlement

        • US, UK, Germany, France, Russia


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    QUOTES this region?

    • "Milosevic is a survivor, a political animal. But I think the Kosovo crisis is the beginning of his downfall. ... Milosevic has been surfing on patriotism for 10 years, but he has given nothing back to show for it." -- Zarko Korac, a Belgrade University psychology professor (Knight Ridder Newspapers)


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    QUOTES this region?

    • "Vested interests are behind this [the world's outrage], and of course a very well-organized and well-paid media war. Today in Europe it is normal for the Vatican or Austria and Germany to support Croats. It's not normal if Serbs are supporting Serbs."

      MILOSEVIC


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    Kosovo this region?


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    Massacre at Recak this region?



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    REFUGEES this region?



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    http://www.kforonline.com/ in the affairs of other countries?


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    Yugoslavia must: in the affairs of other countries?

    • 1) verifiably stop all military action and immediately end violence and repression

    • 2) withdraw its soldiers, Serb police, and paramilitary forces from Kosovo

    • 3) allow an international military presence in Kosovo with NATO at its core

    • 4) allow the unconditional and safe return of all refugees and displaced persons

    • 5) assure President Slobodan Milosevic willingness to work toward a political solution for Kosovo


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    Vojvodina in the affairs of other countries?

    Hungarian and Catholic majority

    Kosovo

    Albanian and Muslim majority (90%)

    “Autonomous” Provinces in Yugoslavia


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    Slovenia (West) in the affairs of other countries?

    Slovene/Catholic 91%

    Croat/Catholic 3%

    Serb/E Ortho 2%

    Croatia (West)

    Croat/Catholic 78%

    Serb/E Ortho 12%

    Macedonia (East)

    66% Macedonian/E Ortho

    23% Albanian/Muslim

    2% Serb/E Ortho

    4% Turk/Muslim

    Serbia and Montenegro (incorporated Vojvodina and Kosovo) (East)

    Serb/ E Ortho 63%

    Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%

    Albanian/Muslim 14%

    Hungarian/Catholic 4%

    Bosnia and Hercegovina (Central)

    Muslims (43.7%)

    Croats/Catholic (17.3%)

    Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %)

    Ethnic and Religious Make-up


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    http://www.guardian.co.uk/gallery/galleryguide/0,6143,378099,00.htmlhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/gallery/galleryguide/0,6143,378099,00.html


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