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The BREAK-UP of YUGOSLAVIA. Josip Broz Tito “Brotherhood and Unity”. Slovene/Catholic 91% Croat/Catholic 3% Serb/E Ortho 2%. Croat/Catholic 78% Serb/E Ortho 12%. Muslims (43.7%) Croats/Catholic (17.3%) Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %). Serb/ E Ortho 63% Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%

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slide3

Slovene/Catholic 91%

Croat/Catholic 3%

Serb/E Ortho 2%

Croat/Catholic 78%

Serb/E Ortho 12%

Muslims (43.7%)

Croats/Catholic (17.3%)

Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %)

Serb/ E Ortho 63%

Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%

Albanian/Muslim 14%

Hungarian/Catholic 4%

Bosnia: 40% of

urban couples

ethnically mixed

Patterns of Ethnic Settlement

Facilitated the Conflict and Break-up

66% Macedonian/E Ortho

23% Albanian/Muslim

2% Serb/E Ortho

4% Turk/Muslim

slide4

Key to the conflict

  • World underestimated
    • the power and violence of appeals to ethnicity and nationalism
  • Milosevic
    • purged moderates
    • played upon old fears/animosities
    • engaged in specific policies designed to
        • perpetuate the fear and
        • SEGREGATE the populations and REDRAW national boundaries to their own advantage
    • specifically calculated the West’s inability/reluctance to get involved
slide5
With the rise of Gorbachev and liberalization of relations with USSR
    • Yugoslavia was no longer a crucial link to US foreign policy
    • Fear precedent of break-up
  • US and West was focused on Persian Gulf
  • WEST not prepared to deal with conflicting goals: integrity of state v. self determination
which is a more appropriate goal

Which is a more appropriate goal?

To protect state sovereignty? Borders?

To allow all groups to have self-determination and independent nations?

bosnia
Bosnia
  • Geographically it’s in the middle
      • Territory was desirable for its access to the Adriatic Sea and for strategic reasons
  • It was an example of a truly multi-ethnic society with no majority
      • Muslims (43.7%)
      • Croats (17.3%)
      • Serbs (31.4 %)
  • The population consisted of large ethnic groups
      • Linked to Serbia and Croatia
      • Serbia and Croatia wanted these people and their lands to join Serbia and Croatia respectively, rather than be in a multi-ethnic Bosnia
irony of ethnic cleansing
IRONY OF ETHNIC CLEANSING
  • Ethnic cleansing and mass murder produced ethnically pure territorial units
      • ultimately produces NEATER maps on which peace settlement could be worked
        • allowing the safe areas to fall got rid of enclaves that cluttered the map
      • world leaders denounce ethnic cleansing BUT in the end BACK RESULTS which bring peace
slide10

ETHNIC MIX

  • BEFORE THE
      • WAR
slide11

Before the War

After Dayton Accords

bosnia12
BOSNIA
  • Declares independence, too
    • Bosnian Serbs
      • declare an independent Serb state and lay siege to Sarajevo, claiming the city as its capital
      • Yugoslav artillery shell Bosnia/Sarajevo—providing support to Serb irregulars who engage in ethnic cleansing of Bosnia
      • 1000 Serbs shells a day hitting Sarajveo
      • 3,777 hit in 16 hours on July 23, 1993
vukovar
VUKOVAR

Multi-ethnic city bordering Croatia and Serbia: city reduced from 50,000 to 15,000

safe areas what were they supposed to be

Safe Areas: what were they supposed to be?

Srebrenica, Tuzla, Zepa, Sarajevo, Gorazde

what is the link between nationalism and human rights in this region

What is the link between nationalism and human rights in this region?

Any parallels to the terror in Argentina?

back to original dilemma

Back to original dilemma…

What are the conflicting values?

slide40

Dayton Peace Accord

  • Single Bosnia state (country)
    • divided into Bosnia Croat-Muslim Federation and Bosnian Serb Republic (2 republics)
    • joint presidency
    • free elections
      • END up w/ Bosnia ethnic enclaves each elect strong nationalist governments
  • NATO implementation force (IFOR) to enforce provisions and ensure elections
  • War crime tribunal
slide42

Before the War

After Dayton Accords

international role in yugoslavia

International Role in Yugoslavia

Neo-isolationist or Internationalist?

Cooperative or Military Interventionist?

slide44

International Role in Yugoslavia

  • Sept 1991
    • UN arms embargo on Yugoslavia
  • Oct 1991
    • Sec’y General sends special envoy (Vance)
    • negotiate a short cease-fire
  • Feb 1992
    • Deploy UNPROFOR (14,000 soldiers)
      • to ensure that areas vacated by Serbian army are protected
      • assist humanitarian agencies
      • assist displaced persons in getting home
slide45

October 1992

    • UN declares no-fly zones for Serbian planes over Bosnia and send monitors
  • November 1992
    • send UN troops to Macedonia (1st preventive action ever)
  • February 1993
    • establish International Criminal tribunal
  • May 1993
    • declare Sarajevo and 5 other areas as “safe areas”
      • should be free of armed attacks...
slide46

June 1993

    • increase UNPROFOR size
    • authorize use of force (including air strikes)
    • IN REPLY to attacks on any “safe area”
  • Feb. 1994
    • NATO authorizes air strikes to deter attacks on civilians in Sarajevo
  • April 1994
    • Contact Group forms to draw up peaceful settlement
      • US, UK, Germany, France, Russia
quotes
QUOTES
  • "Milosevic is a survivor, a political animal. But I think the Kosovo crisis is the beginning of his downfall. ... Milosevic has been surfing on patriotism for 10 years, but he has given nothing back to show for it." -- Zarko Korac, a Belgrade University psychology professor (Knight Ridder Newspapers)
quotes48
QUOTES
  • "Vested interests are behind this [the world\'s outrage], and of course a very well-organized and well-paid media war. Today in Europe it is normal for the Vatican or Austria and Germany to support Croats. It\'s not normal if Serbs are supporting Serbs."

MILOSEVIC

slide61

Yugoslavia must:

  • 1) verifiably stop all military action and immediately end violence and repression
  • 2) withdraw its soldiers, Serb police, and paramilitary forces from Kosovo
  • 3) allow an international military presence in Kosovo with NATO at its core
  • 4) allow the unconditional and safe return of all refugees and displaced persons
  • 5) assure President Slobodan Milosevic willingness to work toward a political solution for Kosovo
autonomous provinces in yugoslavia
Vojvodina

Hungarian and Catholic majority

Kosovo

Albanian and Muslim majority (90%)

“Autonomous” Provinces in Yugoslavia
ethnic and religious make up
Slovenia (West)

Slovene/Catholic 91%

Croat/Catholic 3%

Serb/E Ortho 2%

Croatia (West)

Croat/Catholic 78%

Serb/E Ortho 12%

Macedonia (East)

66% Macedonian/E Ortho

23% Albanian/Muslim

2% Serb/E Ortho

4% Turk/Muslim

Serbia and Montenegro (incorporated Vojvodina and Kosovo) (East)

Serb/ E Ortho 63%

Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%

Albanian/Muslim 14%

Hungarian/Catholic 4%

Bosnia and Hercegovina (Central)

Muslims (43.7%)

Croats/Catholic (17.3%)

Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %)

Ethnic and Religious Make-up
slide64

http://www.guardian.co.uk/gallery/galleryguide/0,6143,378099,00.htmlhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/gallery/galleryguide/0,6143,378099,00.html

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