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The Age of Nation Building. Politics, Diplomacy and War. Louis Napoleon as President. Winning Support After his election, Louis Napoleon was still dismissed by many as a nonentity, whose only success was due to his name

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The Age of Nation Building

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The Age of Nation Building

Politics, Diplomacy and War

Louis Napoleon as President

  • Winning Support

    • After his election, Louis Napoleon was still dismissed by many as a nonentity, whose only success was due to his name

    • However, Louis Napoleon was a clever politician, he understood the popular forces of his time, and he was patient

    • Seizure of government (1 December 1851) and election as president for 10 years

  • Election as Emperor

    • A year later on 21 November 1852, Louis Napoleon again returned to the people to ask for a restoration of the Empire

    • 97% voted yes, and Louis Napoleon assumed the title Napoleon III, instituting the Second Empire

Second Napoleonic Empire: Government

  • The government was clearly authoritarian

  • As chief of state, Napoleon III controlled the military, police, and the civil service and only he could declare war and introduce legislation

Second Napoleonic Empire: Government

  • The Legislative Corps (Parliament) gave a semblance of representative government as its members were elected by universal male suffrage to 6 year terms

  • However, they could not initiate legislation nor affect the budget

Second Napoleonic Empire: Government

  • Stimulating the Economy

    • The first five years of Napoleon III’s reign were very successful as he and France reaped the benefits of worldwide economic prosperity as well as his own economic policies

    • Napoleon believed in using the resources of government to stimulate the national economy

  • Rebuilding Paris

    • One of Napoleon III’s great contributions was the rebuilding of Paris

    • Purpose

Second Napoleonic Empire: Liberalization

  • By the 1860’s opposition to Napoleon began to grow and in response he liberalized his regime

  • Her reached out to the working class by legalizing trade unions and granting them the right to strike

  • Reforms to elections and the Legislative Corps

  • Napoleon even proposed a new constitution in May 1870

  • However, failures in foreign policy and the war with Prussia brought down the Second Empire before any reforms could be instituted

Foreign Policy and the Crimean War

  • Weakening of the Ottoman Empire – The Eastern Question

  • Declaration of war: October 1853 and March of 1854

  • Why war? - To protect the balance of power

  • Course of the war

  • Results of the Crimean War

Unification of Italy:The House of Savoy

  • In 1850, Austria was still the dominant power in Italy, but many Italian nationalists were placing their hopes in Piedmont

  • Piedmont, under Charles Albert, had tried during 1848-49 to unify Italy but had failed

  • They would again assume a leadership role under King Victor Emmanuel II and his PM Camillo di Cavour

Camillo di Cavour

  • Liberal minded nobleman

  • Appointed PM in 1852

  • Pursued a policy of economic expansion that would strengthen Piedmont and its army

  • However, he realized that he could not take on Austria alone so he made an alliance with France in 1858

  • Confident of success, Cavour provoked Austria into declaring war in April 1859

Camillo di Cavour

  • In the subsequent fighting, it was the French who were responsible for defeating the Austrians and Magenta and Solferino

  • However, the French also made peace with Austria without telling their Italian ally - why?

  • With French withdrawal, Piedmont only got Lombardy

  • Cavour was furious, but events soon change to the benefit of Cavour – how?

  • Napoleon agreed to the annexations and received Nice and Savoy

Garibaldi and His Red Shirts

  • Meanwhile, a new leader of Italian unification came to the fore, Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • He was a dedicated Italian patriot who had supported Mazzini

  • Garibaldi, the Red Shirts, and Sicily (May to September 1860)

  • At this point, Cavour reentered the stage as he knew Garibaldi was marching on Rome

End Game of Italian Unification

  • Unification (1861)

    • Piedmontese forces moved into the Papal States to meet Garibaldi, who, as a patriot, yielded to Cavour rather than provoke a civil war

    • Formation of the new kingdom of Italy centered in Piedmont (17 March 1861)

  • Rome (1870)

    • However, Italian unification was still not complete

    • Venetia was only added after Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866

    • Addition of Rome (20 September 1870)

German Unification:Prussia as the model

  • German nationalists, in the wake of the failure of Frankfurt, soon saw Prussia and the key to German unification

  • Prussia and the Zollverein (1834)

  • Politically, Prussia had a constitution with the appearance of a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature

  • Problem: Strong monarchy

German Unification:William I

  • Came to the thrown in 1861 and began a policy of strengthening the army

  • Conflict with the legislature and rejection of William’s budget

Otto von Bismarck and Realpolitik

  • In response, William appointed Otto von Bismarck as PM and he would remain so until 1890, dominating both German & European politics

  • Characteristics of Bismarck

  • In 1862, he resubmitted the budget, but it was again defeated

Otto von Bismarck and Realpolitik

  • He then went ahead and collected the taxes and reorganized the army blaming the liberals for the breakdown

  • Parliament did nothing and because of their opposition, Bismarck pursued an active foreign policy that resulted in three wars and German unification under the auspices of Prussia

Wars of Unification:Danish War (1864)

  • Arose over the Danish annexation of the duchies of Schleswig & Holstein

  • Bismarck persuades Austria to join Prussia in declaring war and quickly defeat the Danes

  • Bismarck realizes that Prussia cannot expand its power with Austrian interference

  • He creates a friction over the duchies and with Austria politically isolated goads her into war

Austro-Prussian War (1866)

  • Many expected a quick Austrian victory, but after only six weeks of fighting, the Austrians are defeated at the battle of Königgratz

  • Results and consequences of the war

  • More importantly, Prussian success brings the liberals to Bismarck’s side and they pass a bill of indemnity legalizing all that Bismarck had done

Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)

  • The final step was France

  • Bismarck knew he would have to deal with her as Napoleon III would not be willing to see a strong Germany on her borders

  • The fuse was over the succession to the vacant Spanish throne

    • The Ems Telegram

  • Course of the war

    • Battle of Sedan (September of 1870)

    • Fall of Paris (January 1871)

    • Peace Treaty, May of 1871

Unification (1871)

  • Before the war had ended, the south German states agreed to join the NGC

  • On 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, William I is proclaimed Kaiser of the Second Reich

Unification (1871)

  • German unity had been achieved through Prussia and its army, and in reality Germany had been merged into Prussia

  • Germany was now the strongest nation in Europe and a new European balance of power was at hand

Nation Building and Reform: Austria

  • Francis Joseph and Dual Monarchy

    • After the Revolutions of 1848-49, Austria dismantled the liberal gains and resorted to authoritarian government

    • However, with each Austrian defeat, changes were made to the government

    • The greatest came in 1866 after defeat against the Prussians - the Ausgleich

  • Domination by Germans and Magyars

    • The Ausgleich only enabled each of the dominant groups (German & Magyar) to dominate the minorities, especially the Slavs, in each state

Imperial Russia

  • Alexander II and the Emancipation of the Serfs

    • Defeat in the Crimean War forced her to look at her deficiencies

    • Alexander II turned his energies to reforming Russia and Russian society

    • Emancipation of the serfs (3 March 1861)

  • Other Reforms

    • Zemstvos Assemblies

    • However, Alexander was not able to control all the forces unleashed by his reforms as he is assassinated in 1881

    • His successor, Alexander III resorted to more autocratic means

Britain's Victorian Age:Palmerston's Conservatism

  • Britain was able to escape most of the tumult of 1848 because of her stability, especially in the person of Queen Victoria (1837-1901)

  • The major figure of the period was Henry John Temple, Lord Palmerston

    • PM from 1855-1865

    • Although a Whig, he crossed party lines regularly and thus could make political compromises

    • However, he was no reformer and resisted any extension of the franchise

Move to Reform

  • With Palmerston’s death in 1865, the movement to increase the franchise only intensified

  • Although the Whigs (now the Liberals) talked about increasing the franchise, it was the Tories (now the Conservatives) who actually carried it through

Disraeli and the Reform of 1867

  • Benjamin Disraeli and the Conservatives

  • Reform Act of 1867

    • Lowered the monetary requirements for voting, enfranchising nearly all urban male workers

    • However, the new voters favored the Liberals and produced a huge victory for them in 1868

Gladstone and the Liberal Party

  • Liberal victory in 1868 brought William Gladstone to power, and during this first Liberal administration instituted many reforms

  • Legislation and government orders opened civil service positions to competitive exams rather than patronage, introduction of a secret ballot for voting, and abolished the practice of purchasing military commissions

  • The Education Act of 1870 attempted to make elementary schools available for all children

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