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Roman Beginnings…. Roman Beginnings…. Rome started with the Latin Tribe on the Italian Peninsula in the Tiber River Valley around 2000 B.C. Italian Peninsula Powers. Etruscans. Etruscans. The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C. . Etruscans.

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roman beginnings2

Roman Beginnings…

Rome started with the

Latin Tribe on the Italian Peninsula

in the Tiber River Valley

around 2000 B.C.

etruscans5
Etruscans
  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.
etruscans6
Etruscans
  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.
    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins
etruscans7
Etruscans
  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.
    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins
    • The king kept a Latin advisory council called the Senate
etruscans8
Etruscans
  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.
    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins
    • The king kept a Latin advisory council called the Senate
  • The Senate was made up of land owners or Patricians.
etruscans9
Etruscans
  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.
    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins
    • The king kept a Latin advisory council called the Senate
  • The Senate was made up of land owners or Patricians.
  • The common people were known as Plebeians.
eventually11
Eventually…

The Tarquin (Etruscan Family) Dynasty was overthrown.

eventually12
Eventually…

The Tarquin (Etruscan Family) Dynasty was overthrown.

Rome forms its own government.

the roman republic14

The Roman Republic

Republic: Citizens elect representatives to run the government.

the republic16
The Republic
  • Established in 509 B.C.
the republic17
The Republic
  • Established in 509 B.C.
  • Gives each “tribe” of Rome representation in the government.
the republic18
The Republic
  • Established in 509 B.C.
  • Gives each “tribe” of Rome representation in the government.
  • Uses two different branches to run the government
the roman republic21
The Roman Republic

Senate

Consuls

the roman republic22
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

Consuls

the roman republic23
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

Consuls

the roman republic24
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

Consuls

the roman republic25
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

Consuls

the roman republic26
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

Consuls

the roman republic27
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

the roman republic28
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive

the roman republic29
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive

Two Positions

the roman republic30
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive

Two Positions

-One year terms (to limit their power)

the roman republic31
The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive

Two Positions

-One year terms (to limit their power)

-During war time one is chosen to act as dictator

slide33

But…

Only Patricians could be part of the government.

plebeian plight for equal rights35
Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights
  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office
plebeian plight for equal rights36
Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights
  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office
  • 494B.C. - Formation of the Plebeian Assembly and Tribunes
plebeian plight for equal rights37
Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights
  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office
  • 494B.C. - Formation of the Plebeian Assembly and Tribunes
  • 451B.C. - Twelve Tables created: Ensuring the right to protection of the law for all Roman citizens
plebeian plight for equal rights38
Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights
  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office
  • 494B.C. - Formation of the Plebeian Assembly and Tribunes
  • 451B.C. - Twelve Tables created: Ensuring the right to protection of the law for all Roman citizens
  • 287B.C. - Plebeian Assembly evolves into the Popular Assembly with near equal status to the Senate
rome expands40
Rome Expands…
  • North - Took over the Etruscans
rome expands41
Rome Expands…
  • North - Took over the Etruscans
  • South - Took over the Greeks
rome expands42
Rome Expands…
  • North - Took over the Etruscans
  • South - Took over the Greeks

By 270B.C. Rome ruled all of central and southern Italy

punic wars44
Punic Wars
  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome
punic wars45
Punic Wars
  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome
  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily
punic wars46
Punic Wars
  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome
  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily
    • Carthage controlled part of Sicily, Rome wanted it as a buffer
punic wars47
Punic Wars
  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome
  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily
    • Carthage controlled part of Sicily, Rome wanted it as a buffer
    • Fought by ships
punic wars48
Punic Wars
  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome
  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily
    • Carthage controlled part of Sicily, Rome wanted it as a buffer
    • Fought by ships
    • Rome won!
hannibal50
Hannibal
  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome
hannibal51
Hannibal
  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome
    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps
hannibal52
Hannibal
  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome
    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps
    • Losing half of his men
hannibal53
Hannibal
  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome
    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps
    • Losing half of his men
  • Rome attacks North Africa
hannibal54
Hannibal
  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome
    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps
    • Losing half of his men
  • Rome attacks North Africa
    • Hannibal returns to Africa to defend Carthage
hannibal55
Hannibal
  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome
    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps
    • Losing half of his men
  • Rome attacks North Africa
    • Hannibal returns to Africa to defend Carthage
    • He is defeated at Zama (50 miles from Carthage) in 202B.C.
third punic war57
Third Punic War
  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally
third punic war58
Third Punic War
  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally
  • Rome gets annoyed with Carthage and they destroy the city of Carthage
third punic war59
Third Punic War
  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally
  • Rome gets annoyed with Carthage and they destroy the city of Carthage
  • Therefore Rome controls all Carthaginian land
third punic war60
Third Punic War
  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally
  • Rome gets annoyed with Carthage and they destroy the city of Carthage
  • Therefore Rome controls all Carthaginian land

North Africa = Roman Province

roman empire65

Roman Empire

Expanding across the Mediterranean brought many changes to Rome…

expansion under the republic67
Expansion under the Republic
  • Rome expanded to…
    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece
expansion under the republic68
Expansion under the Republic
  • Rome expanded to…
    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece
    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor
expansion under the republic69
Expansion under the Republic
  • Rome expanded to…
    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece
    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor
    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt
expansion under the republic70
Expansion under the Republic
  • Rome expanded to…
    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece
    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor
    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt

MEDITERRANEAN SEA   

expansion under the republic71
Expansion under the Republic
  • Rome expanded to…
    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece
    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor
    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt

MEDITERRANEAN SEA   = MARE NOSTRUM

expansion under the republic72
Expansion under the Republic
  • Rome expanded to…
    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece
    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor
    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt

MEDITERRANEAN SEA   = MARE NOSTRUM

“OUR SEA”

end of the republic74

End of the Republic

Senate became too powerful and the army was doing all the work…

enter julius caesar76
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
enter julius caesar77
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
enter julius caesar78
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 
enter julius caesar79
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)
enter julius caesar80
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)
    • Overthrew the Senate
enter julius caesar81
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)
    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)
enter julius caesar82
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)
    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)
    • Gave Roman citizenship to non-Romans
enter julius caesar83
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)
    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)
    • Gave Roman citizenship to non-Romans
    • Adjusted taxes
enter julius caesar84
Enter: Julius Caesar
  • Popular General
    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul
  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)
    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)
    • Gave Roman citizenship to non-Romans
    • Adjusted taxes (taxed rich more than the poor)
julius caesar
Julius Caesar
  • Became a dictator
julius caesar86
Julius Caesar
  • Became a dictator
  • All powerful
julius caesar87
Julius Caesar
  • Became a dictator
  • All powerful
  • According to the Senate…
julius caesar88
Julius Caesar
  • Became a dictator
  • All powerful
  • According to the Senate…
    • He was too powerful!
julius caesar89
Julius Caesar
  • Became a dictator
  • All powerful
  • According to the Senate…
    • He was too powerful!

Senate assassinates/murders Julius Caesar

octavian mark antony91
Octavian & Mark Antony
  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators
octavian mark antony92
Octavian & Mark Antony
  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators
  • Decide to split the empire and rule over two different sections - East and West
octavian mark antony93
Octavian & Mark Antony
  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators
  • Decide to split the empire and rule over two different sections - East and West
  • Octavian = Western Empire and Rome
octavian mark antony94
Octavian & Mark Antony
  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators
  • Decide to split the empire and rule over two different sections - East and West
  • Octavian = Western Empire and Rome
  • Mark Antony = Eastern Empire and Egypt
mark antony cleopatra96
Mark Antony & Cleopatra
  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne
mark antony cleopatra97
Mark Antony & Cleopatra
  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne
  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian
mark antony cleopatra98
Mark Antony & Cleopatra
  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne
  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian
  • Octavian meets Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (off the southern coast of the Italian Peninsula)
mark antony cleopatra99
Mark Antony & Cleopatra
  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne
  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian
  • Octavian meets Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (off the southern coast of the Italian Peninsula)
  • Octavian wins
mark antony cleopatra100
Mark Antony & Cleopatra
  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne
  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian
  • Octavian meets Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (off the southern coast of the Italian Peninsula)
  • Octavian wins
  • Cleopatra and Mark Antony commit suicide
augustus caesar102
Augustus Caesar
  • Octavian is named emperor by the Senate
augustus caesar103
Augustus Caesar
  • Octavian is named emperor by the Senate
    • Augustus “the majestic”
augustus caesar104
Augustus Caesar
  • Octavian is named emperor by the Senate
    • Augustus “the majestic”

The Roman Empire is born!

augustus107
Augustus
  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)
augustus108
Augustus
  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)
  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…
augustus109
Augustus
  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)
  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…
    • Adjusted taxes
augustus110
Augustus
  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)
  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…
    • Adjusted taxes
    • Public works
augustus111
Augustus
  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)
  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…
    • Adjusted taxes
    • Public works
  • Lack of corruption
augustus112
Augustus
  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)
  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…
    • Adjusted taxes
    • Public works
  • Lack of corruption
  • Encouraged large Roman families
decline of the roman empire
Decline of the Roman Empire

180A.D.

End of Marcus Aurelius’ reign

A series of leader came after - did not lead well, were brutal

Hostile tribes outside of Rome begin to threaten trade routes

Raising of taxes

Barbarians invading

Rome hire mercenaries to fight = lack of loyalty

Political office no longer an honor = costs to lead

Inflation from overproduction of less valued coinage

Decreasing Population -harvests declined (less fertile land) -slave labor = no new technology -disease and starvation

causes of the decline of rome116
Causes of the Decline of Rome
  • Rome’s economy declines.
causes of the decline of rome117
Causes of the Decline of Rome
  • Rome’s economy declines.
  • Rome faces military upheaval.
causes of the decline of rome118
Causes of the Decline of Rome
  • Rome’s economy declines.
  • Rome faces military upheaval.
  • Roman politics decay.
causes of the decline of rome119
Causes of the Decline of Rome
  • Rome’s economy declines.
  • Rome faces military upheaval.
  • Roman politics decay.
  • Bigger gap between the rich and poor.
causes of the decline of rome120
Causes of the Decline of Rome
  • Rome’s economy declines.
  • Rome faces military upheaval.
  • Roman politics decay.
  • Bigger gap between the rich and poor.

Rome splits into East and West

contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire124
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire125
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire126
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire127
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire128
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
    • Low funds for defense
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire129
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
    • Low funds for defense
  • Political
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire130
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
    • Low funds for defense
  • Political
    • Division of the empire
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire131
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
    • Low funds for defense
  • Political
    • Division of the empire
    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire132
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
    • Low funds for defense
  • Political
    • Division of the empire
    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor
  • Social
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire133
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
    • Low funds for defense
  • Political
    • Division of the empire
    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor
  • Social
    • Lack of confidence in the empire
contributing factors to the decline of the western roman empire134
Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…
  • Economic
    • Inflation
    • Disruption of Trade
  • Military
    • Threats from Northern European tribes
    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers
    • Low funds for defense
  • Political
    • Division of the empire
    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor
  • Social
    • Lack of confidence in the empire
    • Decline in interest of political affairs
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