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Roman Beginnings…. Roman Beginnings…. Rome started with the Latin Tribe on the Italian Peninsula in the Tiber River Valley around 2000 B.C. Italian Peninsula Powers. Etruscans. Etruscans. The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C. . Etruscans.

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Roman Beginnings…

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Roman Beginnings…


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Roman Beginnings…

Rome started with the

Latin Tribe on the Italian Peninsula

in the Tiber River Valley

around 2000 B.C.


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Italian Peninsula Powers


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Etruscans


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Etruscans

  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.


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Etruscans

  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.

    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins


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Etruscans

  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.

    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins

    • The king kept a Latin advisory council called the Senate


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Etruscans

  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.

    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins

    • The king kept a Latin advisory council called the Senate

  • The Senate was made up of land owners or Patricians.


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Etruscans

  • The Etruscans took over the Latins in 800 B.C.

    • A Latin-elected, Etruscan-born king ruled over the Latins

    • The king kept a Latin advisory council called the Senate

  • The Senate was made up of land owners or Patricians.

  • The common people were known as Plebeians.


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Eventually…


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Eventually…

The Tarquin (Etruscan Family) Dynasty was overthrown.


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Eventually…

The Tarquin (Etruscan Family) Dynasty was overthrown.

Rome forms its own government.


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The Roman Republic


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The Roman Republic

Republic: Citizens elect representatives to run the government.


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The Republic


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The Republic

  • Established in 509 B.C.


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The Republic

  • Established in 509 B.C.

  • Gives each “tribe” of Rome representation in the government.


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The Republic

  • Established in 509 B.C.

  • Gives each “tribe” of Rome representation in the government.

  • Uses two different branches to run the government


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The Roman Republic


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The Roman Republic

Senate


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Consuls


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

Consuls


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

Consuls


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

Consuls


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

Consuls


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

Consuls


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive

Two Positions


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive

Two Positions

-One year terms (to limit their power)


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The Roman Republic

Senate

Law Makers

300 Members

-Proposed Laws

-Lifetime Terms

-Nominated Consuls

-Consuls appoint vacancies

Consuls

Chief Executive

Two Positions

-One year terms (to limit their power)

-During war time one is chosen to act as dictator


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But…


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But…

Only Patricians could be part of the government.


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Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights


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Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights

  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office


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Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights

  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office

  • 494B.C. - Formation of the Plebeian Assembly and Tribunes


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Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights

  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office

  • 494B.C. - Formation of the Plebeian Assembly and Tribunes

  • 451B.C. - Twelve Tables created: Ensuring the right to protection of the law for all Roman citizens


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Plebeian Plight for Equal Rights

  • 509B.C. - Republic created: Plebeians are citizens with the right to vote, but they could not hold political office

  • 494B.C. - Formation of the Plebeian Assembly and Tribunes

  • 451B.C. - Twelve Tables created: Ensuring the right to protection of the law for all Roman citizens

  • 287B.C. - Plebeian Assembly evolves into the Popular Assembly with near equal status to the Senate


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Rome Expands…


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Rome Expands…

  • North - Took over the Etruscans


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Rome Expands…

  • North - Took over the Etruscans

  • South - Took over the Greeks


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Rome Expands…

  • North - Took over the Etruscans

  • South - Took over the Greeks

    By 270B.C. Rome ruled all of central and southern Italy


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Punic Wars


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Punic Wars

  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome


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Punic Wars

  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome

  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily


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Punic Wars

  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome

  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily

    • Carthage controlled part of Sicily, Rome wanted it as a buffer


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Punic Wars

  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome

  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily

    • Carthage controlled part of Sicily, Rome wanted it as a buffer

    • Fought by ships


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Punic Wars

  • Series of three wars over 100 years… Carthage versus Rome

  • First War: 241B.C. - Sicily

    • Carthage controlled part of Sicily, Rome wanted it as a buffer

    • Fought by ships

    • Rome won!


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Hannibal


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Hannibal

  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome


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Hannibal

  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome

    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps


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Hannibal

  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome

    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps

    • Losing half of his men


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Hannibal

  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome

    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps

    • Losing half of his men

  • Rome attacks North Africa


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Hannibal

  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome

    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps

    • Losing half of his men

  • Rome attacks North Africa

    • Hannibal returns to Africa to defend Carthage


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Hannibal

  • 219B.C. -Carthaginian General Hannibal attacks Rome

    • Through Iberian Peninsula, through Gaul and over the Alps

    • Losing half of his men

  • Rome attacks North Africa

    • Hannibal returns to Africa to defend Carthage

    • He is defeated at Zama (50 miles from Carthage) in 202B.C.


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Third Punic War


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Third Punic War

  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally


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Third Punic War

  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally

  • Rome gets annoyed with Carthage and they destroy the city of Carthage


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Third Punic War

  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally

  • Rome gets annoyed with Carthage and they destroy the city of Carthage

  • Therefore Rome controls all Carthaginian land


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Third Punic War

  • 199B.C. Carthage attacked a Roman ally

  • Rome gets annoyed with Carthage and they destroy the city of Carthage

  • Therefore Rome controls all Carthaginian land

North Africa = Roman Province


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Rome before the wars…


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Rome after the Punic Wars…


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Roman Map


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Roman Empire


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Roman Empire

Expanding across the Mediterranean brought many changes to Rome…


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Expansion under the Republic


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Expansion under the Republic

  • Rome expanded to…

    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece


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Expansion under the Republic

  • Rome expanded to…

    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece

    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor


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Expansion under the Republic

  • Rome expanded to…

    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece

    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor

    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt


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Expansion under the Republic

  • Rome expanded to…

    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece

    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor

    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt

MEDITERRANEAN SEA   


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Expansion under the Republic

  • Rome expanded to…

    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece

    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor

    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt

MEDITERRANEAN SEA   = MARE NOSTRUM


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Expansion under the Republic

  • Rome expanded to…

    • 146 B.C. Macedonia and Greece

    • 133 B.C. Asia Minor

    • 100 B.C. Middle East and Egypt

MEDITERRANEAN SEA   = MARE NOSTRUM

“OUR SEA”


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End of the Republic


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End of the Republic

Senate became too powerful and the army was doing all the work…


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Enter: Julius Caesar


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul

  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul

  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul

  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)

    • Overthrew the Senate


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul

  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)

    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul

  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)

    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)

    • Gave Roman citizenship to non-Romans


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul

  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)

    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)

    • Gave Roman citizenship to non-Romans

    • Adjusted taxes


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Enter: Julius Caesar

  • Popular General

    • Fresh from the Gallic Wars in which Rome took over Gaul

  • 44B.C. formed the First Triumvirate                                 (oligarchy)

    • Overthrew the Senate (weakened it)

    • Gave Roman citizenship to non-Romans

    • Adjusted taxes (taxed rich more than the poor)


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Julius Caesar

  • Became a dictator


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Julius Caesar

  • Became a dictator

  • All powerful


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Julius Caesar

  • Became a dictator

  • All powerful

  • According to the Senate…


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Julius Caesar

  • Became a dictator

  • All powerful

  • According to the Senate…

    • He was too powerful!


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Julius Caesar

  • Became a dictator

  • All powerful

  • According to the Senate…

    • He was too powerful!

Senate assassinates/murders Julius Caesar


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Octavian & Mark Antony


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Octavian & Mark Antony

  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators


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Octavian & Mark Antony

  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators

  • Decide to split the empire and rule over two different sections - East and West


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Octavian & Mark Antony

  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators

  • Decide to split the empire and rule over two different sections - East and West

  • Octavian = Western Empire and Rome


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Octavian & Mark Antony

  • Restore order by eliminating certain powerful senators

  • Decide to split the empire and rule over two different sections - East and West

  • Octavian = Western Empire and Rome

  • Mark Antony = Eastern Empire and Egypt


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Mark Antony & Cleopatra


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Mark Antony & Cleopatra

  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne


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Mark Antony & Cleopatra

  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne

  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian


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Mark Antony & Cleopatra

  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne

  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian

  • Octavian meets Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (off the southern coast of the Italian Peninsula)


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Mark Antony & Cleopatra

  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne

  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian

  • Octavian meets Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (off the southern coast of the Italian Peninsula)

  • Octavian wins


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Mark Antony & Cleopatra

  • Cleopatra believes that her son is the rightful heir to the Roman throne

  • She convinces Mark Antony to attack Octavian

  • Octavian meets Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (off the southern coast of the Italian Peninsula)

  • Octavian wins

  • Cleopatra and Mark Antony commit suicide


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Augustus Caesar


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Augustus Caesar

  • Octavian is named emperor by the Senate


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Augustus Caesar

  • Octavian is named emperor by the Senate

    • Augustus “the majestic”


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Augustus Caesar

  • Octavian is named emperor by the Senate

    • Augustus “the majestic”

The Roman Empire is born!


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Pax Romana (Roman Peace)


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Augustus


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Augustus

  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)


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Augustus

  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)

  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…


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Augustus

  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)

  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…

    • Adjusted taxes


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Augustus

  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)

  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…

    • Adjusted taxes

    • Public works


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Augustus

  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)

  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…

    • Adjusted taxes

    • Public works

  • Lack of corruption


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Augustus

  • Created a peaceful empire (Pax Romana)

  • Concentrated on building the empire from within…

    • Adjusted taxes

    • Public works

  • Lack of corruption

  • Encouraged large Roman families


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Roman Trade


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Decline of the Roman Empire

180A.D.

End of Marcus Aurelius’ reign

A series of leader came after - did not lead well, were brutal

Hostile tribes outside of Rome begin to threaten trade routes

Raising of taxes

Barbarians invading

Rome hire mercenaries to fight = lack of loyalty

Political office no longer an honor = costs to lead

Inflation from overproduction of less valued coinage

Decreasing Population -harvests declined (less fertile land) -slave labor = no new technology -disease and starvation


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Causes of the Decline of Rome


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Causes of the Decline of Rome

  • Rome’s economy declines.


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Causes of the Decline of Rome

  • Rome’s economy declines.

  • Rome faces military upheaval.


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Causes of the Decline of Rome

  • Rome’s economy declines.

  • Rome faces military upheaval.

  • Roman politics decay.


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Causes of the Decline of Rome

  • Rome’s economy declines.

  • Rome faces military upheaval.

  • Roman politics decay.

  • Bigger gap between the rich and poor.


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Causes of the Decline of Rome

  • Rome’s economy declines.

  • Rome faces military upheaval.

  • Roman politics decay.

  • Bigger gap between the rich and poor.

Rome splits into East and West


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers

    • Low funds for defense


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers

    • Low funds for defense

  • Political


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers

    • Low funds for defense

  • Political

    • Division of the empire


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers

    • Low funds for defense

  • Political

    • Division of the empire

    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers

    • Low funds for defense

  • Political

    • Division of the empire

    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor

  • Social


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers

    • Low funds for defense

  • Political

    • Division of the empire

    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor

  • Social

    • Lack of confidence in the empire


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Contributing Factors to the Decline of the Western Roman Empire…

  • Economic

    • Inflation

    • Disruption of Trade

  • Military

    • Threats from Northern European tribes

    • Decline of patriotism & loyalty among soldiers

    • Low funds for defense

  • Political

    • Division of the empire

    • Political office seen as a burden, not an honor

  • Social

    • Lack of confidence in the empire

    • Decline in interest of political affairs


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