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Differentiating Instruction: The Journey. "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." *

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differentiating instruction the journey
Differentiating Instruction: The Journey

"In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." *

* Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

“StudentsFirst: Successs for All” Conference

Kennesaw State University

Tuesday, November 15, 2005

Judy Rex

[email protected]

slide4
The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same way.

Howard Gardner

slide6

Dear Miss Brin,

Yesterday you got really really mad at me in class. I didn’t argue with you, because that just makes you madder and being yelled at makes my stomach feel funny and I can’t think. But I want to say what happened. Maybe you will understand why it looks like I don’t pay attention in class.

You told us to open our books to chapter 4 and read silently. Then you asked everyone to put your hand up if we had finished the third page and Sean didn’t. You waited for him to finish the page. Then you told us to take turns reading out loud. When you got to me, I asked you what paragraph to start on, and you started yelling at me. You asked me a lot of questions but you didn’t let me answer any of them. You answered them yourself but the things you said weren’t true answers!

This is what happened. I started reading when you said. I finished the chapter and stopped because you get mad if I read any more. I didn’t get out another book because that makes you mad too. I didn’t doodle or do math or talk to Sarah or get up or walk around because those things make you mad. So I worked on my greek in my head until you called on me.

slide7
I tried to keep track of where the other kids were when they were reading. And I had the right page. I just didn’t hear where Kim stopped. Her voice is sooo quiet and the verb I was saying was too loud in my head! So it’s not true that I was day dreaming! And I’m not stuck up or arrogant or insolent or any of the things you said I was! I TRY to follow along but I CAN’T read that slow!!

You said you got mad because I was wasting everybodies time. But I just asked “which paragraph Miss Brin?” Look at your watch and say it too. It takes 2 seconds. You could have said “the third paragraph.” That takes 21 seconds. I timed it too. Then Sarah and Amy R and Amy B would have 6 minutes to read aloud. Instead you yelled at ME for 6 minutes and they did not get to read any thing!

Peter takes almost a whole minute to read “Ben heard the bear cough behind him.” I timed him. It’s a game I made up to pay attention instead of doing Greek or making up poems in my head. If I ask you what paragraph and you tell me it still takes me less than half a minute for me to read a whole paragraph. So I guess I don’t understand why you are mad or why you used 6 minutes to tell the class what a bad stupid mean person i am because I wasted their time for 4 seconds. I think YOU wasted their time!!! And I think YOU were mean to call me those names in front of everybody!!!!

slide8
Miss Brinn I want to do what you tell me! I don’t understand why I can’t keep reading at the end of a chapter. Or get out my other books. or study my greek. Or draw or doodle or write in my journal. But you don’t want me to do that so I don’t. But I can’t sit and stare at the wall. If i try to do that I just start thinking about something else! I don’t know HOW to not think! I don’t know HOW to read slow! Please tell me what to do so it won’t make you mad at me all the time. And PLEASE don’t yell at me in class.

love,

your sad student,

Anne

slide9

I know it’s been a long time since you heard from me. I wanted to let you know what I am doing now and that I think of you often, even though I have not been a particularly faithful correspondent.

When you last saw me, you must have had some doubt about what I might do with my life. The interesting thing, though, is that if you did have doubts, you never let me know about them. You treated me as though I had all the possibilities in the world in my hands. The fact that I could not pass a vocabulary test seemed incidental to you. What mattered was what I could do.

I didn’t get that at the time. I was too exhausted from years of lugging around my disabilities.

You need to know that I will be receiving a Masters Degree in just a few days. My mom asked who I wanted to know about that from back home. You need to know. Your belief in me when I had no belief in myself opened the door that led here. . .

R.G. .

slide10

Understood Betsy

  • Elizabeth Ann fell back on the bench with her mouth open. She felt really dizzy. What crazy things the teacher said! She felt as though she was being pulled limb from limb.
    • “What’s the matter?” asked the teacher, seeing her bewildered face.
    • “Why – why,” said Elizabeth Ann, “I don’t know what I am at all. If I’m second grade arithmetic and seventh grade reading and third grade spelling, what grade am I?”
    • The teacher laughed. “You aren’t any grade at all, no matter where you are in school. You’re just yourself, aren’t you? What difference does it make what grade you’re in? And what’s the use of your reading little baby things too easy for you just because you don’t know your multiplication table?”
slide11

Appalachian Trail

South end of Hundred Mile Wilderness… Warning!!!

where do i begin start small but start
Where Do I Begin?Start small – but start!

First Steps:

*

*

*

Next Steps

*

*

*

Who will help or support you?

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

Leaps

*

*

*

Bounds

*

*

*

differentiated instruction defined
Differentiated Instruction Defined

“Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.”

Carol Ann Tomlinson

slide14

Differentiation

Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs

Guided by general principles of differentiation

Respectful tasks

Flexible grouping

Continual assessment

Teachers Can Differentiate Through:

Environment

Content

Product

Process

According to Students’

Readiness

Interest

Learning Profile

Through a range of strategies such as:

Multiple intelligences…Jigsaw…4MAT…Graphic Organizers…RAFTS

Compacting…Tiered assignments…Leveled texts…Complex Instruction… Learning Centers

slide15

Think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials, programs or instructional strategies. If you have high quality curriculum and materials, then it isn’t so much WHAT you use as it is HOW you use it to meet the varying readiness, interests and learning profiles of your students.

slide16

Differentiation

must be an extension of

not a

replacement for

high quality

curriculum.

what differentiated instruction
IS

Differentiated instruction is more QUALITATIVE than quantitative.

Differentiated instruction provides MULTIPLE approaches to content, process, and product.

Differentiated instruction is STUDENT CENTERED.

Differentiated instruction is a BLEND of whole class, group, and individual instruction.

Differentiated instruction is "ORGANIC".

IS NOT

Individual instruction

Chaotic or new

Just another way to provide homogenous instruction (You DO use flexible grouping instead)

Just modifying grading systems and reducing work loads

More work for the "good" students and less and different for the "poor" students

What Differentiated Instruction…
slide18

Unlocking the Meaning of Differentiation

Affirmation

Contribution

Power

Purpose

Challenge

The Student Seeks

Important

Focused

Engaging

Demanding

Scaffolded

Curriculum and

Instruction are

the Vehicle

The Teacher Responds

Invitation

Opportunity

Investment

Persistence

Reflection

Carol Tomlinson, 2002

slide19
“Differentiation is not so much the ‘stuff’ as the ‘how.’ If the ‘stuff’ is ill conceived, the ‘how’ is doomed.”

Carol Ann Tomlinson

respectful tasks
RESPECTFUL TASKS

Respectful tasks recognize student learning differences. The teacher continually tries to understand what individual students need to learn most effectively. A respectful task honors both the commonalities and differences of students, but not by treating them all alike.

A respectful task offers all students the opportunity to explore essential understandings and skills at degrees of difficulty that escalate consistently as they develop their understanding and skill.

slide23

KNOW(facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)

ecosystem

elements of culture (housing/shelter, customs, values, geography)

UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth or insight – want students to understand that . . . )

All parts of an ecosystem affect all others parts. Culture shapes people and people shape culture.

DO (Basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the discipline, planning skills --- verbs)

Write a unified paragraph

Compare and contrast

Draw conclusions

Examine varied perspectives

Work collaboratively

Develop a timeline

Use maps as data

Tomlinson * 02

choice the great motivator
-CHOICE-The Great Motivator!
  • Requires children to be aware of their own readiness, interests, and learning profiles.
  • Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOU are still in charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos –NO taking the easy way out!)
  • Use choice across the curriculum: writing topics, content writing prompts, self-selected reading, contract menus, math problems, spelling words, product and assessment options, seating, group arrangement, ETC . . .
  • GUARANTEES BUY-IN AND ENTHUSIASM FOR LEARNING!
slide27

Learning Profile Factors

Learning Environment

quiet/noise

warm/cool

still/mobile

flexible/fixed

“busy”/”spare”

Group Orientation

independent/self orientation

group/peer orientation

adult orientation

combination

Gender

&

Culture

Intelligence Preference

analytic

practical

creative

verbal/linguistic

logical/mathematical

spatial/visual

bodily/kinesthetic

musical/rhythmic

interpersonal

intrapersonal

naturalist

existential

Cognitive Style

Creative/conforming

Essence/facts

Expressive/controlled

Nonlinear/linear

Inductive/deductive

People-oriented/task or Object oriented

Concrete/abstract

Collaboration/competition

Interpersonal/introspective

Easily distracted/long Attention span

Group achievement/personal achievement

Oral/visual/kinesthetic

Reflective/action-oriented

differentiation according to sternberg s intelligences

Tall Tales

Grade 3

Differentiation According to Sternberg’s Intelligences

Know:What makes a Tall Tale

Definition of fact and exaggeration

Understand:An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it.

People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more wonderful or scarier.

Do: Distinguish fact and exaggeration

Analytical Task

Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and complete

the organizer as you do.

Practical Task

Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed story and told a tall tale about something that happened. Write or draw both the factual or true version of the story and the tall tale version.

Creative Task --- RAFT Assignment

Role Audience Format Topic

Someone Our Diary entry Let me tell you

in our class class what happened while Johnny A. and I were on the way to school today….

Johnny Appleseed’s

Facts Exaggerations

assessment in a differentiated classroom
Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom
  • Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.)
  • Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.)
  • Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile.
  • Assessments are part of “teaching for success”.
  • Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth.
  • Assessment MAY be differentiated.
  • Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades.
  • Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.
a few routes to readiness differentiation

A Few Routes toREADINESS DIFFERENTIATION

Varied texts by reading level

Varied supplementary materials

Varied scaffolding

reading

writing

research

technology

Tiered tasks and procedures

Flexible time use

Small group instruction

Homework options

Tiered or scaffolded assessment

Compacting

Mentorships

Negotiated criteria for quality

Varied graphic organizers

character map
Character Map

Character Name____________

How the character looks

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

How the character thinks or acts

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

Most important thing to know about the character

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

character map32
Character Map

Character Name____________

What the character says or does

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

What the character really MEANS to say or do

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

What the character would mostly like us to know about him or her _____________________________________________________________________________________

character map33
Character Map

Character Name____________

Clues the author gives us about the character

____________

____________

____________

____________

Why the author gives THESE clues

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

The author’s bottom line about this character ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

slide35

Ways

to Differentiate Content

  • Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
      • Read/Summarize
      • Read/Question/Answer
      • Visual Organizer/Summarizer
      • Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
  • Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
  • Flip Books
  • Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)
  • Books on Tape
  • Highlights on Tape
  • Digests/ “Cliff Notes”
  • Note-taking Organizers
  • Varied Texts
  • Varied Supplementary Materials
  • Highlighted Texts
  • Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview

Tomlinson – ‘00

slide36

FRIENDSHIPS

Shape up!

Reading Contract

Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue them

Below. You are responsible for finishing these activities by _________. Have fun!

This contract belongs to _____________________________________

slide37

Make a poster advertising

yourself as a good

friend. Use words and

pictures to help make

people want to be your

friend. Make sure your

name is an important

part of the poster

Make a two sided

circle-rama. Use it to tell

people what makes you a

good friend. Use pictures

and words and make

sure your name is an

important part of the

display

Make a mobile that

shows what makes you

a good friend. Use

pictures and words

to hang on your mobile.

Write your name on the

top of the mobile in

beautiful letters.

Get with a

friend and make

a puppet show

about a problem and

the solution in your book

Get with a

friend and act out

a problem and its

solution from your

book

Meet with me

and tell me about a

problem and its solution

from the story. Then tell

me about a problem you have

had and how you solved it

Draw a picture of a problem

in the story. Then use words

to tell about the problem and

how the characters solved

their problem

Write a letter to one of the

characters in your book. Tell

them about a problem you have.

Then have them write back with

a solution to your problem.

Think about another

problem one of the

characters in your book

might have. Write a new

story for the book about the

problem and tell how it

was solved.

slide38

Ways

to Differentiate Product

  • Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile
  • Clear expectations
  • Timelines
  • Agreements
  • Product Guides
  • Rubrics
  • Evaluation
slide39
Map

Diagram

Sculpture

Discussion

Demonstration

Poem

Profile

Chart

Play

Dance

Campaign

Cassette

Quiz Show

Banner

Brochure

Debate

Flow Chart

Puppet Show

Tour

Lecture

Editorial

Painting

Costume

Placement

Blueprint

Catalogue

Dialogue

Newspaper

Scrapbook

Lecture

Questionnaire

Flag

Scrapbook

Graph

Debate

Museum

Learning Center

Advertisement

Possible

Products

Book List

Calendar

Coloring Book

Game

Research Project

TV Show

Song

Dictionary

Film

Collection

Trial

Machine

Book

Mural

Award

Recipe

Test

Puzzle

Model

Timeline

Toy

Article

Diary

Poster

Magazine

Computer Program

Photographs

Terrarium

Petition Drive

Teaching Lesson

Prototype

Speech

Club

Cartoon

Biography

Review

Invention

slide40

Mrs. Mutner liked to go over a few

of her rules on the first day of class

slide41

Best Practices forStandards-based InstructionBest Practice, New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s SchoolsZemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (1998). Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann

Student Voice and Involvement

  • Balanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities:
  • Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc.
  • Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assess
  • Some themes / inquiries are built from students’

own questions

  • Students assume responsibility and take roles

in decision making

a typical day in a d i class
A “Typical” Day in a D.I. Class
  • predictable, not rigid, schedule
  • blocks of time for units of study
  • procedures defined and in place
  • students assuming responsibility
  • voice and choice for students
  • a variety of materials are in use
  • flexible grouping occurs regularly
  • daily reflection on learning
  • regular community gatherings

(for fun and problem solving)

slide46

FLEXIBLE GROUPING

Should be purposeful:

  • may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readiness
  • may be based on needs observed during learning times
  • geared to accomplish curricular goals (K-U-D)

Implementation:

  • purposefully plan using information collected – interest surveys, learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations, etc.
  • list groups on an overhead; place in folders or mailboxes
  • “on the fly” as invitational groups

Cautions:

  • avoid turning groups into tracking situations
  • provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups
  • practice moving into group situations and asuming roles within the group
slide47

Round the Clock Learning Buddies

My

Appointment Clock

Make an appointment with 12 different people – one for each hour on the clock. Be sure you both record the appointment on your clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks.

Tape this paper inside a notebook, or to something that you will

bring to class each day.

anchor activities what do i do if i finish early
Read – comics, letters, books, encyclopedia, poetry, etc.

Write – a letter, poetry in your Writer’s Notebook, a story, a comic, etc.

Practice your cursive or calligraphy

Keyboarding

Help someone else

Create math story problems or puzzles

Work on independent study of your choice

Play a math or language game

Find out how to say your spelling words in another language

Practice ACT / SAT cards

Solve a challenge puzzle with write it up

Practice anything!

Get a jump on homework

Use your imagination and creativity to challenge yourself!

Anchor ActivitiesWhat Do I Do If I Finish Early?
10 strategies for managing a differentiated classroom
10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom
  • Have a strong rationale for differentiating instruction based on student readiness, interest and learning profile.
  • Begin differentiating at a pace that is comfortable for you.
  • Time differentiated activities for student success.
  • Use an “anchor activity” to free you up to focus your attention on your students.
  • Create and deliver instructions carefully.
10 strategies for managing a differentiated classroom50
10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom
  • Have a “home base” for students.
  • Be sure students have a plan for getting help when you are busy with another student or group.
  • Give your students as much responsibility for their learning as possible.
  • Engage your students in talking about classroom procedures and group processes.
  • Use flexible grouping.
slide51
Students in a differentiated classroom do not need to work the system . . . . .

because the system works for them!

slide52

Remember to think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials, programs or instructional strategies.

How will you use what you learn about today to differentiate for YOUR students?

ask yourself
Ask yourself . . . .

SO WHAT?

NOW WHAT?

a game plan for differentiation
A Game Plan for Differentiation

1. Sharpen the curriculum

  • Focus (K-U-D)
  • Hook
  • Ratchet
  • Tighten

2. Assess the students

  • Pre-assessments for Readiness
  • Interest Inventories
  • Learning Preference Surveys
  • Anecdotal Data
slide55

3. Design instruction

  • Map the content, process, and product
  • Whole class, small group, individual (flexible grouping)

4. Match tasks to learner need

  • Adjust for Readiness, interest, learning profile
  • Vary strategies
  • Align with KUD
slide56

5. Bring the students on board

  • Develop rationale
  • Establish routines and procedures
  • Focus on shared decision-making
  • Build autonomy

6. Reflect and refine

  • Keep the loop going

Adapted from C. Tomlinson

slide58

OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION

To Differentiate Instruction By Readiness

To Differentiate Instruction By Interest

To Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profile

CA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97

where are you on the continuum of differentiation
Where are you on the continuum of DIFFERENTIATION?
  • What will it take for you to move?
  • What roadblocks are in your way?
  • How can you remove them?
where do i begin start small but start65
Where Do I Begin?Start small – but start!

First Steps:

*

*

*

Next Steps

*

*

*

Who will help or support you?

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

Leaps

*

*

*

Bounds

*

*

*

slide66

Suggested Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction

ASCD.org, Educational Leadership magazine, ASCD video series

Brandt, Ron (1998) Powerful Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Cooper, J. David (2000). Literacy: Helping Children Construct Meaning, Fourth Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Cummings, Carol (2000). Winning Strategies for Classroom Management. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Erickson, H. Lynn (1998). Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction: Teaching Beyond the Facts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Erickson, H. Lynn (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Gibbs, Jeanne (1995). Tribes: A New Way of Learning and Being Together. Sausalito, California: Center Source Systems

Jensen, Eric (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Keene, Ellin Oliver $ Zimmerman, Susan (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader\'s Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Levine, Mel (2002). A Mind at a Time. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Marzano, Robert J. (2000). Transforming Classroom Grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, Robert J. & Pickering, Debra J. & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Silver, Harvey & Strong, Richard W. & Perini, Matthew J. (2000). So Each May Learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

slide67

Reeves, Douglas B. (2004). Accountability for Learning: How Teachers and Leaders Can Take Charge. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Sternberg, Robert. (1998). Successful Intelligence: How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine Success in Life.

Stiggins, Richard J. (1997). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment, Second Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Strachota, B. (1996). On Their Side: Helping Children Take Charge of Their Learning. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Society for Children.

Stronge, James H. (2002) Qualities of Effective Teachers, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating Instruction for Mixed Ability Classrooms; A Professional Inquiry Kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tomlinson, C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tomlinson, C. & Allan, Susan D. (2000). Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tomlinson, C. & Eidson, Caroline Cunningham (2003). Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades K-5. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tomlinson, C. (2003). Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom: Strategies and Tools for Responsive Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Wiggins, Grant & McTighe, Jay (1998. Understanding By Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Winebrenner, S. (2001). Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom (revised, expanded, updated edition). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching Kids With Learning Difficulties in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

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