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Participatory Evaluation of the Importance of Native Plant Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province.

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Participatory Evaluation of the Importance of Native Plant Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Bassirou BELEM 1; Carsten Smith OLSEN 3; Sita GUINKO 2; Ida THEILADE 3; Ronald BELLEFONTAINE 4; Anne Mette LYKKE5; Joseph I. BOUSSIM 2; Adama DIALLO1

October 2008

Accra, Ghana


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CONTENT Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

INTRODUCTIONOBJECTIVESMETHODSRESULTS DISCUSSIONREFERENCES


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SERVICE Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Introduction 2

Rural people in the Sahelian countries depend on access to trees for a multitude of purposes.

Trees provide important products and sevice such as

Ecological

Food

Soil fertilzation

Cultural value

Art & craft

Fodder

Medicine

GOODS

Cash (income)

Construction

Firewood


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Introduction 3 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Problem 1

  • But during the last decade, deforestation and desertification are taking place and the consequences include : Forest cover loss Biodiversitty lossAnd loss of option of uses

  • There is therefore a pressing need to enhance the management of forest and agroforestry system to sustain farmer livelihoods (Boffa,200)

  • This process need that the most important trees selected


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Introduction 4 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Problem 2

  • In the central plateau of Burkina Faso, the population density is high,

  • Village lands are under pression (human and animal)

  • Agroforestry tree species need selection and conservation

  • No study were conducted in the village of Dem and Wedsé


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Introduction 5 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Problem 3

Until the recent years target trees selection for nursery, reforestation, agroforestry has been recommended by forest technicians and NGO agents USING TOP DOWN APPROACH


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Introduction 6 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Opportunity

Happely, nowadays farmers knowledge is being recongnized as valid to incorporated in forest sustainable management process (Musnad 1996)


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Introduction 7 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

  • Considering the large number of agroforestry species, the development of a rational method for setting priorities among species is an important step to match better rural people needs of trees (Jaenicke et al. 1995, Musnad 1996, Franzel et al. 1996).


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Introduction 8 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

WHAT WE WANT TO GET OR KNOW?

The objectives of the study are:

  • to identify and analyze the different uses of the selected species by Category of Plant Uses;

  • to determinate which trees, shrubs, and lianas are priority species for the local people of the two villages.

  • Finally, discussion of the advantages and draw backs of methodology will be done.


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The study area Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Mossi (cultivators) and Peulh (herders) are the main ethnic groups in each village.


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METHOD 1 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Ethnoscience, Transdisciplinaire approach

(Rist & Dahdouh-Guebas, 2006)

Ethnobotany ((Prance et al., 1987 Phillips & Gentry (1993; Martin, 1995; Cotton, 1996; Lykke et al., 2004).

Quantitative ethnobotany and the use-value methods are applied to study the importance of plants, for local people and to compare the local importance of different species (Prance et al. 1987, Phillips and Gentry 1993).

The ethnobotanical use-value of a species estimates its overall usefulness by quantification using a score.


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METHOD 2 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Species selection.

Scientific Inventory

Participatory selection (in collaboration with farmers (men and women)

Informants: 36 to 78 years

(Men and women)

Including gardeners, traditional midwife and

traditional healer.

  • Data collection

  • Data were collected using:

  • semi structure interview

  • informal talks,

  • free listing of plants,

  • Observation as well as forest and tree walks


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METHOD 3 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

  • CATEGORIES OF PLANT USES

  • We used six categories of plant uses

  • Construction, Food, Medicine, Technical, Commerce and Energy.

  • PLANT IMPORTANCE ASSESSMENT

  • The groups of scores used are used to assess each plant

    • 0: Not used;

    • 0.5: usable but not good, plants occasionally used;

    • 1: usable, includes plants currently used for a specific purpose;

    • 1.5: usable and the best


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METHODE 4 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Phillips and Gentry (1993a, b) formula is used to calculate the use-value of each species.

Is used for the calculation of the use-value of the species.

Where UVs is the overall use-value of species s.

UVis is the use-value of species s as determined by informant i. Is is the total number of informant interviewed for species s.

The overall use-value of each species is the sum of use-values of the six categories of plant use. In this way, it is possible to rank the species within each Category of Plant Uses in ascending or descending way.

0= UVs: species not used;

0UVs 3: species less important, not priority species;

3 UVs 6: species important, priority species;

6UVs 9: species very important,

DATA ANALYSIS

Descriptive statistic (excell and Minitab)

Man Whitney test for non parametric data (Mintab)


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RESULTS 1 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Plant uses


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Results 2 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Species and number of use


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Combretum micranthum 45 differents uses Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Bark against children malaria

Leaves against diarrhoea

Leaves for babies fortification

Leaves used as tea

Roots to stimulate children walking

Stem (big ones) to make tools handles

Stem to

Stems used in basketry

Wood for fuel (firewood)

Wood to make charcoal

And so on


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Vitellaria paradoxa 25 uses Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Edible (by men) fruits

Kernel is for butter preparation

Bark to heal wounds

Wood to make pack down tools

Wood for posts and poles for hangar construction

Poles for house construction

Wood for charcoal making

Wood for fuel (firewood)

Wood for pestles making

Wood to make seats


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Parkia biglobosa Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga ProvinceLocus bean (22 diffrents uses)

Edible Fruit (pulp)

Seeds to make spice

Bark against teeth pains

Bark to heal anus wounds

Bark to heal wounds

Ash of wood to make black dye

Fruits sold

Wood for tool handles making

Wood to make drums


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Results Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Extraction pattern

  • Roots

  • Bark

  • Stem

  • Leaves


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10 top species DEM Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province


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The species Use value by village Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province


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MANN-WHITNEY TEST Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

WHEN ALL CATEGORIES ARE CONSIDERED

No difference of preference between the 2 villages (p = 0,426).

WITHIN EACH CATEGORY

No difference beteween village in:

food category (p = 0,367)

Commerce (p = 0,9).

Difference in the

medecine category(p = 0,0001),

Technical (p = 0,001),

Construction (p = 0,014)

Energy

(p = 0,02).


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Correlation between use value and number Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

of uses in each villae

DEM

WEDSE


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DISCUSSION 1 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

The pattern of extraction

The medicine category contains the largest number of uses (178) and represents 68% of the uses mentioned suggesting that the selected trees are used against a wide range of human and animal diseases.

Medicinal plants promotion and domestication need to be addressed

FARMERS KNOWLEDGE AND USE DESCRIPTION REVEAL IT


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DISCUSSION 2 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

SPECIES CONSERVATION

Species extraction is unsustainable

FARMERS PRACTICES REVEAL IT

Recommendation

Improve forest code making usefull species protection be a reality (Limiting bark extraction)

Most of the species are not planted (vitellaria paradoxa, Boscia senegalenis, species extraction is unsustainable

FARMERS PRACTICES REVEAL IT

Recommendation

Focuss on farmer targeted trees and shrub in valuation policy legislation and policy – legislation process


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DISCUSSION 3 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Limits of the use value method

Doesn’t distinguish, present, past and potential use

CPU can be

The use-value methodology is not an economic valuation methodology but when income generation becomes


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DISCUSSION 4 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Limits of the use value method

  • Many factors contribute to the determination of the use-value these are:

  • informants knowledge (experimentation) and preference learning,

  • abundance/ richness of the species in the region,

  • scarcity or abundance of the products extracted from the species,

  • possibility to use substitute of the products,

  • existence of local, regional or international markets for the products extracted from the species;

  • cultural values and believe attached on the species;

  • forest legislation which regulate the use of the species.

  • Finally, use-value results depend on time space, meaning that results from use-value methodology must be appreciated with caution and taking into account time factor.


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DISCUSSION 5 Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

CHALLENGES

How fast can we shift from top down tree selection to bottom up (e.g. how to integrate the main findings to improve local forest and agricultural policies?)

How to effectively conserve the most important selected tree species in the short, medium and long term?


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Lannea microcarpa  Resources Used by Local People in Sahelo-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso: Case Study in the Sanmatenga Province

Anacardiaceae

END

THANK YOU


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