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Participles. Latin II Chapter V. Definition. A participle is that form of the verb which is used like an adjective. Since it is a verb, it has tense and voice . It can take a direct object, an indirect object, etc.

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Participles l.jpg

Participles

Latin II

Chapter V


Definition l.jpg
Definition

  • A participle is that form of the verb which is used like an adjective.

  • Since it is a verb, it has tense and voice. It can take a direct object, an indirect object, etc.

  • Since it is an adjective, it has case, number, and gender, and it will modify a noun.


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Formation

Active

Passive

Present

Perfect

Future

2nd pp - re + ns, ntis

“x-ing”

4th pp

“having been x-ed”

2nd pp - re + ndus, a, um

4th pp - us +urus, a, um

“about to x”

“must be x-ed”

Present active participles are declined like third declension adjectives,

while perfect passive, future active and passive participles are

declined like first/second declension adjectives.


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Third -io and Fourth Conjugation Verbs

  • Be careful when forming the present active and future passive participles for 3rd -io and 4th conjugation verbs:

  • drop the entire infinitive ending (ire/ere)

  • add -ie-

  • then add the -ns, -ntis or -ndus, a, um


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Present Active Participle

  • 2nd pp - re + ns, ntis

    servo, servare drop the “re”, add -ns, -ntis

    servansservantes

    servantis servantum

    servanti servantibus

    servantem servantes

    servante servantibus

Recall that for the third declension, you must go to the genitive to get the stem.

These are the endings for the masculine and feminine forms of the adjective.

For the neuter forms, use the third declension neuter endings.


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Present Active Participle

  • 2nd pp - re + ns, ntis

    servo, servare drop the “re”, add -ns, -ntis

    servansservantia

    servantis servantium

    servanti servantibus

    servants servantia

    servante servantibus

Recall that for the third declension, you must go to the genitive to get the stem.

These are the endings for the neuter forms of the adjective.


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Declined like a 1st/2nd declension adjective

Perfect Passive Participle

  • 4th pp

    servo, servare, servavi, servatus

    servatus, a, um servati, ae, a

    servati, ae, i servatorum, arum, orum

    servato, ae, o servatis, is, is

    servatum , am, um servatos, as, a

    servato, a, o servatis, is, is

“having been saved”


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Future Active Participle

  • 4th pp - us + urus, a, um

    servo, servare, servavi, servatus

    servaturus, a, um servaturi, ae, a

    servaturi, ae, i servaturorum, arum, orum

    servaturo, ae, o servaturis, is, is

    servaturum, am, um servaturos, as, a

    servaturo, a, o servaturis, is, is

Declinedlike a 1st/2nd

declension adjective

“about to save”


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Future Passive Participle

  • 2nd pp - re + ndus, a, um

    servo, servare, servavi, servatus

    servandus, a, um servandi, ae, a

    servandi, ae, i servandorum, arum, orum

    servando, ae, o servandis, is, is

    servandum, am, um servandos, as, a

    servando, a, o servandis, is, is

Declined like a 1st/2nd declension adjective

“must be saved”


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Participle Uses

  • indicate the time of the action in relation to the adjoining verb

    • present participle indicates the action is going on at the same time as the verb

    • future participle indicates the action will happen after the verb

    • perfect participle indicates that the action happened before the verb

Sedens in lecto, puer edit.

Sitting on the couch, the boy eats.

The boy is sitting on the couch at the same time that he is eating.


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Participle Uses

  • Just like any other adjective, it describes a noun

legati necati

slaughtered ambassadors

violatihospites

violatedguests


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Present Active

Practice declining and translating…..

Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

  • 2nd pp - re + ns, ntis*

* Remember that for 3rd-io and 4th conjugation verbs, you must drop the entire infinitive ending, then add -ie- before adding the adjective endings

muniens

munientes

munientum

munientis

munientibus

munienti

munientes

munientem

munientibus

muniente

“building, fortifying”


Practice declining and translating13 l.jpg
Practice declining and translating…..

Perfect Passive

Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

  • 4th pp

munitus, a, um

muniti, ae, a

munitorum, arum, orum

muniti, ae, i

munitis, is, is

munito, ae, o

munitos, as, a

munitum, am, um

munitis, is, is

munito, a, o

“having been built, having been fortified”


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Practice declining and translating…..

Future Active

Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

  • 4th pp - us + urus

muniturus, a, um

munituri, ae, a

muniturorum, arum, orum

munituri, ae, i

munituris, is, is

munituro, ae, o

munituros, as, a

muniturum, am, um

munituris, is, is

munituro, a, o

“about to build, about to fortify”


More on future active participles l.jpg
More on Future Active Participles…..

Sometimes they are best translated as relative (dependent) clauses…….

Hannibal proelium cum Romanis commissurus de montes

in Italiam venit.

Hannibal, about to begin battle, …..

OR

Hannibal, who was going to begin battle, …..


Practice declining and translating16 l.jpg
Practice declining and translating…..

Future Passive

Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

  • 2nd pp - re + ndus*

muniendus, a, um

muniendi, ae, a

muniendorum, arum, orum

muniendi, ae, i

muniendis, is, is

muniendo, ae, o

muniendos, as, a

muniendum, am, um

muniendis, is, is

muniendo, a, o

“must be built, must be fortified”

* again, remember that with 3rd-io and 4th conjugation verbs,

you need to drop the entire infinitive ending, add -ie-, then add

the adjective ending


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1. Another name for the fourth principal part of a verb is

the ___________________, and it functions as a(n)

___________________.

perfect passive participle

adjective

2. Participles can/cannot function by themselves as the

main verb of a sentence.

CANNOT

3. A participle can modify what part of speech?

Review

a noun or pronoun

4. Translate the following sentence:

Vir ducens animalia Hannibal est.

The man leading the animals is Hannibal.

What is/are the object(s) of ducens?

Animalia is not the object of est!!!

It is the object of ducens!


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Practice Sentences

Senex, multas iniurias passus, auxilium petivit.

The old man, having suffered many injuries, sought help.

Ab amicis incitatus, certavit.

Encouraged by his friends, he competed.

Anulum inventum ad dominum tulimus.

When the ring had been found, we took it to the master.

(We took the ring having been found to the master.)


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ANY QUESTIONS?

PRESENT ACTIVE

PERFECT ACTIVE

FUTURE ACTIVE

FUTURE PASSIVE


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