Lamoid restraint and physical exam
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Lamoid Restraint and Physical Exam. Kevin Kristick Pierrette Danieu. Introduction. Classification Domestication Distribution Basic Description Physiology Uses Vaccination Schedule Proper handling Restraint Techniques Physical examination. Classification of Lamoids. Class: Mammalia

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Lamoid Restraint and Physical Exam

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Lamoid Restraint and Physical Exam

Kevin Kristick

Pierrette Danieu


Introduction

  • Classification

  • Domestication

  • Distribution

  • Basic Description

  • Physiology

  • Uses

  • Vaccination Schedule

  • Proper handling

  • Restraint Techniques

  • Physical examination


Classification of Lamoids

  • Class: Mammalia

    • Order: Artiodactyla

      • Suborder: Tylopoda- camelids

        • Old World Genera and species:

          • Camelus dromedarius

          • Camelus bactrianus

        • New World Genera and species: (Lamoid)

          • Lama glama-Llama

          • Lama pacos- Alpaca

          • Lama guanicoe- Guanaco

          • Vicugna vicugna- Vicuna

      • Sub order: Ruminantia- cattle, sheep, goats, giraffe, etc.


Evolution and Domestication

  • First migrated to South America ~3 million years ago

  • Llamas and alpacas have been domesticated for 7,000 years; no wild incidence

  • Guanacos and Vicunas are wild


Distribution


Physical Description

  • Life span: 15-25 years

  • Weight:

    • Alpaca: 121-200lbs

    • Llama: 250-550 lbs

  • Height at withers:

    • Alpaca: 30-38 in

    • Llama: 40-47 in

  • Gestation period: 341 days

  • Birth: a single offspring called a cria


Physiology

  • Foregut fermenters

    • Regurgitation

    • Re-chewing

    • Re-swallowing

  • Stomach has three compartments = resistant to bloat

  • Efficient in extracting protein and energy from poor quality forages


Vicuna

  • Wild

  • Subspecies:

    • Peruvian

    • Argentine

  • Smallest Lamoid-weighs under 90 lbs and stands under 3 ft at the shoulder

  • Finest fiber quality of all lamoids

  • Uses a broad range of habitat for grazing and browsing


Guanaco

  • Wild

  • Many subspecies

  • High quality inner coat

  • Juvenile pelts are used for garments

  • Uses a broad range of habitat for grazing and browsing


Alpaca

  • Exists only as domesticated species

  • Breeds:

    • Huacaya

    • Suri

  • Excellent fiber quality

  • Prefers to graze succulent forage in marshes and moist places


Llama

  • Exists only as domesticated species

  • South American breeds:

    • Heavy neck fiber:

      • Chaku

      • Lanuda

      • Tapada

    • Short neck fiber:

      • Ccara

      • Pelada

  • Inner coat makes excellent garments

  • Grazes dry, harsh grass species


Uses: Alpacas

  • Premier fiber producing animal

  • Harvested for meat

  • Leather used to make ropes

  • Pelts of crias make fine rugs

  • North American Alpacas serve as show and companion animals


Uses: Llamas

  • Long history of supplying Andean people with meat, leather and fiber

  • Serve as sacrificial animals

  • North American Llamas fill numerous niches:

    • Breeding/showing

    • Companion animals

    • Packing

    • Guard Llamas

    • Golf caddy


Lamoid Vaccination Schedule

  • Crias:

    • 3 mo- CD&T, ± Rabies

    • 4 mo- ± Rabies

  • Annual Herd:

    • CD & T

    • 2 mo- Clostridium perfringens type C, D and tetanus (CD&T)

    • ± Rabies

    • ± Lepto. Repeat q 6 mo.

  • New Animals:

    • Initial series: CD&T, Lepto, Rabies

    • Booster all in one month

  • Prebirthing Boosters:

    • CD&T

    • 4-6 weeks prior to anticipated birth


Handling

  • Avoid Eye Contact

  • Place a Halter and Lead Rope

  • Use Your Surroundings

  • Less is Best!


Handling

  • Monitor Body Posture

    • Ear Position

    • Tail Position


Handling

  • Stand Near the Shoulder to Avoid Kicking

  • Do Not Work Alone

  • Avoid Spitting

    • Ears Laid Back

    • Gulping/Gurgling Sound


Restraint

  • Neck and Tail Hold

    • Similar to sheep

    • Approach slowly

    • Place one arm around base of neck

    • Firmly grasp tail with other hand

    • Difficult in larger animals


Restraint

  • “Earing”

    • Similar to “earing” a horse

    • Gain owner approval

    • Squeeze firmly

    • Caution: Natural instinctive movement is away from the grasping


Restraint

  • “Chukkering”

    • Places animal in recumbency by restricting the hind legs


Restraint

  • Chutes or Stocks

    • Commercially available

    • Easy to construct

    • “Fowler” chute


Restraint

  • Neonates

    • Neck and Tail Hold

    • Proper Lifting

    • Lateral Recumbency

    • Sternal Recumbency (kush position)


Physical Exam

  • Normals:

    • Temp: 99.5-102 F

    • Pulse: 60-90

    • Resp: 10-30

    • Gastric Motility: 3-5 contractions/min


Physical Exam

  • Heart and Lung Auscultation

    • Reach through fleece

    • At the elbow

    • Caudal to triceps


Physical Exam

  • Assessing Body Condition

    • Dorsal spinal muscles at T8 to L2

    • Triangular = Thin

    • Round = Healthy

    • Flat = Overweight


Physical Exam

  • Assessing the Eye

    A: Eyelid Margins

    B: Third Eyelid

    C: Bulbar Conjunctiva

    D: Iris

    E: Pronounced Dark Pupillary Margins (corpora nigrum)

    F: Ocular Fundus


Physical Exam

  • Assessing the Ears

    • Difficult to assess

    • Facial paralysis seen with infections (Listeria monocytogenes)


Physical Exam

  • Assessing the Mouth

    • Inability to open wide prevents good exam

    • Check incisor teeth for under or over bite

    • Modified canine teeth present, called Fighting teeth (up to 3 pair)


Physical Exam

  • Blood Collection

    • Difficult due to protective barriers

    • Jugular venipuncture is best

    • Blind stick, can not feel or see jugular groove in most animals


References

  • Fowler, Murray E. DVM, Medicine and Surgery of South American Camelids 2nd ed., Iowa Sate University Press, 1998

  • www.purdyvet.com

  • A special thanks to Dr. Pam Walker

  • Another thanks to Dr. Stephen Purdy


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