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HUN 1201-Essentials of Nutrition. Richard T Patton MA, MPH, RD/LN, CHES Biology, Health & Wellness Office 1271-8. Learding Causes of Death in the United States. Table 1-5, p. 24. Tobacco. Diet/Activity. Alcohol. Microbial Agents. Toxic Agents. Firearms. Sexual Behavior.

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HUN 1201-Essentials of Nutrition

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Hun 1201 essentials of nutrition l.jpg

HUN 1201-Essentials of Nutrition

Richard T Patton MA, MPH, RD/LN, CHES

Biology, Health & Wellness

Office 1271-8


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Learding Causes of Death

in the United States

Table 1-5, p. 24


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Tobacco

Diet/Activity

Alcohol

Microbial Agents

Toxic Agents

Firearms

Sexual Behavior

Motor Vehicles

0

5

10

15

20

Percent of all causes of death

Data Source: McGinnis & Foege, JAMA, November, 1993

Actual Causes of Deathin the United States (2000)‏


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On any given day in the United States...

  • 815 billion calories are consumed (200 billion more than needed)‏

  • 47 million hot dogs

  • 4 million pounds of bacon

  • 60 million pounds of red meat

  • 170 million eggs


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On any given day in the United States...

  • 3 million gallons of ice cream

  • 10 million pounds of candy

  • 16 million gallons of beer and ale

  • 1.5 million gallons of hard liquor(enough to make 26 million people drunk!)‏


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On any given day in the United States...

  • Americans eat approximately 100 acres of pizza = 30,240,000 slices or about 350 slices per second.

    • (Each man, woman and child in America eats and average of 46 slices, (23 pounds), of pizza per year).


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  • www.thisiswhyyourefat.com


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Eat More Fruits and Vegetables!


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Food Choices

  • Personal preferences for flavors of food are the main reason people make food choices and choices can be influenced by genetics.

  • Habits are comforting and food choices are often just a habit.


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Food Choices

  • Ethnic heritage or traditions are strong influences on eating.

  • Social interactions such as special events, customs, and holidays are shared by groups of people. Food is often involved.


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Food Choices

  • Food availability, convenience, and the economy are affecting many food choices in today’s world.

  • There are many positive and negative associations with food that affect what food is chosen to eat.

  • Eating for emotional comfort can be the result of changes in brain chemistry that occur when foods are consumed.


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Food Choices

  • Values such as religious beliefs, political views, or environmental concerns may affect food choices.

  • Body weight and image can affect food choices both positively and negatively.

  • The nutrition and health benefitsof foods, such as whole, modified, or fortified foods, are becoming more popular.


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Nutrient Classification

  • Carbohydrates--simple, complex

  • Fats-- essential fatty acids

  • Proteins--essential amino acids

  • Vitamins– Water & Fat soluble

  • Minerals—major & trace

  • Water – most of the body by weight


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The Nutrients

  • Nutrients in Foods and in the Body

    • Composition of foods includes the six nutrient classes and can also contain nonnutrients and other compounds, such as fibers, phytochemicals, pigments, additives, alcohols and others.

    • Composition of the human body is made of chemicals similar to food.


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The Nutrients

Nutrients in Foods and in the Body

  • Chemical composition of nutrients includes both organic (those that contain carbon) and inorganic (those that do not contain carbon) compounds.

    • Essential nutrients are those the body cannot make or cannot make in sufficient quantities to meet needs. These are also called indispensable nutrients.


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The Nutrients

  • Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein measured in Calories

    • Macro- vs. micronutrients

      • Carbohydrate, fat, and protein are macronutrients because the body needs them in large quantities.

      • Water, vitamins, and minerals do not provide energy and are known as micronutrients because the body needs them in smaller quantities.


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The Nutrients

  • Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein

    Energy from food differs in energy density.

    • Carbohydrate = 4 kcalories per gram,

    • Protein = 4 kcalories per gram, and

    • Fat = 9 kcalories per gram.

      Activity in the body is fueled by food as energy is released from bonds within carbohydrate, fat, and protein as they are broken down.


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The Nutrients

  • Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein

    • Excess Carbohydrate energy is stored in the body as body fat.

    • Excess Fat energy is stored in the body as body fat.

    • Excess Protein energy is stored in the body as body fat.


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The Nutrients

  • Vitamins are organic, essential nutrients that allow the body to obtain energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

  • Minerals are inorganic, essential nutrients that are found in the bones, teeth, and body fluids.

  • Water is an indispensable and abundant essential nutrient that participates in many life processes.


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The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)

  • Establishing Nutrient Recommendations

    • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) defines the requirement of a nutrient that supports a specific function in the body for half of the healthy population.

    • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) use the EAR as a base and include sufficient daily amounts of nutrients to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy populations. This recommendation considers deficiencies.


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The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)

  • Establishing Nutrient Recommendations

    • Adequate Intakes (AI) reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient without an established RDA that appears to be sufficient.

    • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is a maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.


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The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)

  • Establishing Energy Recommendations

    • Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) represents the average daily energy intake to maintain energy balance and good health for population groups.

    • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) represents the range of intakes for energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce risk of chronic disease.


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The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)

  • Using Nutrient Recommendations

    • Apply to healthy people

    • Recommendations are not minimum and are more likely maximum requirements and can be adjusted for individuals by registered dietitians.

    • Achieved by consuming a variety of foods

    • Apply to average daily intakes

    • Each DRI category serves a unique purpose.


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Nutrition Assessment

  • Nutrition Assessment of Individuals - evaluates the many factors that influence or reflect nutritional health.

    • Historical information regarding diet, health status, drug use, and socioeconomic status is gathered.

    • Anthropometric data measure physical characteristics including height and weight.

    • Physical examinations require skill and reveal possible nutrition imbalances.

    • Laboratory tests detect early signs of malnutrition.


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