Geography. The Science of Spatial and Descriptive Analysis. Spatial Analysis. Space Different than raw numbers, statistics Distribution, distance, density, area, autocorrelation, topography, topology, and more.
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The Science of Spatial and Descriptive Analysis
Geographers use specialized tools including maps, geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing, mathematical modeling and statistics to allow them to portray information that varies spatially on the Earth’s surface
Geography looks at the world from the viewpoint of geographic space by synthesizing ideas from different disciplines and developing special techniques to represent and manipulate spatial information
Geography can be subdivided into human geography and physical geography
human geography examines economic, social and behavioral processes
physical geography examines natural processes, and is generally composed of biogeography, climatology and geomorphology.
The natural systems and processes involved in physical geography are considered to operate within four great spheres (or realms): the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere
The life layer is the shallow Earth surface layer where the four realms (or spheres) interact and where most life forms are found
Scale, pattern and process are three interrelated geographic themes
Scale: the level of structure or organization at which a phenomenon is studied
Pattern: variation in phenomenon observed at a particular scale
Process: how the factors that affect a phenomenon act to produce a pattern at a particular scale
processes operating in the four spheres are studied at different spatial scales or levels of detail (global, continental, regional, local, individual)
a system is a collection of physical processes that are linked and act together in an organized way
a systems approach to physical geography looks for linkages and interactions between processes
Time cycles are periodic changes in system flow rates that occur over periods ranging from hours to millions of years
Physical geography is also concerned with the relationships between humans and their environments
Environmental change is caused by both natural processes and human interference
Some important topics of global change that physical geographers are investigating are global climate change, the carbon cycle, biodiversity, pollution, and extreme events
global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance
but not he Pacific Coast of N. America?