Geography
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Geography. The Science of Spatial and Descriptive Analysis. Spatial Analysis. Space Different than raw numbers, statistics Distribution, distance, density, area, autocorrelation, topography, topology, and more.

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Geography

Geography

The Science of Spatial and Descriptive Analysis


Spatial analysis
Spatial Analysis

  • Space

    • Different than raw numbers, statistics

    • Distribution, distance, density, area, autocorrelation, topography, topology, and more.

    • Theories and techniques for Spatial Analysis have been present for centuries, but only lately have they been available (computers, GIS, remote sensing).

    • Output/Results: MAPS


Spatial analysis1
Spatial Analysis

Geographers use specialized tools including maps, geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing, mathematical modeling and statistics to allow them to portray information that varies spatially on the Earth’s surface



Spatial analysis3
Spatial Analysis

  • The Visual Nature of Spatial Analysis

    • Viewing maps is a integrative action

    • Compare to reading (linear)

    • Information is absorbed as a whole

    • Spatial information shown differently

    • Spatial information is processed differently by your brain




Place
Place

  • Not well defined


Scale
Scale

  • Not well defined


Geography1
Geography

Geography looks at the world from the viewpoint of geographic space by synthesizing ideas from different disciplines and developing special techniques to represent and manipulate spatial information


Introducing geography
Introducing Geography

Geography can be subdivided into human geography and physical geography

human geography examines economic, social and behavioral processes

physical geography examines natural processes, and is generally composed of biogeography, climatology and geomorphology.



Introducing physical geography
Introducing Physical Geography

  • Introducing Geography

  • Spheres, Systems and Cycles

  • Physical Geography, Environment, and Global Change


Introducing physical geography1
Introducing Physical Geography

  • Introducing Geography

  • Spheres, Systems and Cycles

  • Physical Geography, Environment, and Global Change


Physical geography
Physical Geography

  • Spheres, Systems and Cycles

  • Physical Geography, Environment, and Global Change


Introducing physical geography2
Introducing Physical Geography

  • Introducing Geography

  • Spheres, Systems and Cycles

  • Physical Geography, Environment, and Global Change


Spheres systems and cycles
Spheres, Systems and Cycles

The natural systems and processes involved in physical geography are considered to operate within four great spheres (or realms): the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere


Spheres systems and cycles1
Spheres, Systems and Cycles

The life layer is the shallow Earth surface layer where the four realms (or spheres) interact and where most life forms are found


Spheres systems and cycles2
Spheres, Systems and Cycles

Scale, pattern and process are three interrelated geographic themes

Scale: the level of structure or organization at which a phenomenon is studied

Pattern: variation in phenomenon observed at a particular scale

Process: how the factors that affect a phenomenon act to produce a pattern at a particular scale


Spheres systems and cycles3
Spheres, Systems and Cycles

processes operating in the four spheres are studied at different spatial scales or levels of detail (global, continental, regional, local, individual)


Spheres systems and cycles4
Spheres, Systems and Cycles

a system is a collection of physical processes that are linked and act together in an organized way

a systems approach to physical geography looks for linkages and interactions between processes


Spheres systems and cycles5
Spheres, Systems and Cycles

Time cycles are periodic changes in system flow rates that occur over periods ranging from hours to millions of years


Physical geography environment and global change
Physical Geography, Environment, and Global Change

Physical geography is also concerned with the relationships between humans and their environments

Environmental change is caused by both natural processes and human interference

Some important topics of global change that physical geographers are investigating are global climate change, the carbon cycle, biodiversity, pollution, and extreme events


Why physical geography
Why Physical Geography?

  • Non-human processes that formed landscape fall into this realm

  • Understanding of how life forms developed and arrived in our landscape


Three areas of physical geography
Three areas of Physical Geography

  • Geomorphology

  • Climatology

  • Biogeography


Spheres of interest
Spheres of Interest:

Pedosphere

Atmosphere

Hydrosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance


Geomorphology
Geomorphology

  • Study of the structure and formation of landforms (think patterns and processes)

  • Important in understanding internal earth processes and structures, how the surface arrived at present and former states

  • Sub areas of interest to us:

    • Plate Tectonics

    • Orogeny

    • Volcanism

    • Erosion and Mass Wasting

    • Glacial landforms

    • Deposition



Why do we have barrier islands on the Atlantic

but not he Pacific Coast of N. America?

Pattern

Process

Landforms


Climatology
Climatology

  • The Study of the Earth’s Weather Systems and the Weather Patterns they create

  • “Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get”

    • Regional Climates (deserts, polar, alpine)

    • Swing Climates (Hot dry then cold dry then cold wet…)

    • Glaciation

    • Erosion events/floods

    • Storms


Climatology and scale
Climatology and Scale

  • Climatology was one of the first sciences to struggle with scale

  • Weather is affected by many variables at multiple spatial scales

  • E.g. Lifting by Pressure systems, Frontal, Convective, Orographic




Climatic variables
Climatic variables

  • Some climatic variables affecting climate and weather operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales

    • Continental Arrangement

    • Air Currents/Jet Stream

    • Ocean Currents

    • Landforms

    • Water bodies





Biogeography
Biogeography

  • Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns

    • Speciation

    • Extinction

    • Continental Drift

    • Glaciation


Biogeography and continents
Biogeography and Continents

Permian 225mya

Triassic 200mya

Jurassic 135mya

Cretaceous 65mya

Present


Extra questions for all geographers
Extra Questions for All Geographers

  • How do things work (differently) at different scales?

  • What are the important patterns?

  • What are the important processes?

  • What patterns will I see at different scales?

  • How do living things respond to these patterns?

  • How do people respond to these patterns?


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