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General Psychology PSY111. Fall Semester, 2010 Jim Wilwerding , M.Div., MA, LMHC,CADC, NCC. What is the purpose of education?. Should education teach people WHAT to think? HOW to think?. Critical Thinking.

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General psychology psy111 l.jpg

General Psychology PSY111

Fall Semester, 2010

Jim Wilwerding, M.Div., MA, LMHC,CADC, NCC

What is the purpose of education l.jpg
What is the purpose of education?

  • Should education teach people

    • WHAT to think?

    • HOW to think?

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Critical Thinking

  • The process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information.

  • Involves components of:

    • Affective (emotional)

    • Cognitive (thought)

    • Behavioral (actions)

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Affective Components of Critical Thinking

  • Value truth above self-interest

  • Accept change

  • Empathize

  • Welcome divergent views

  • Tolerate ambiguity

  • Recognize personal biases

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Cognitive Components of Critical Thinking

  • Think independently

  • Define problems accurately

  • Analyze data for value and content

  • Employ a variety of thinking processes

  • Synthesize

  • Resist overgeneralization

  • Employ metacognition (think about thinking)

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Behavioral Components

  • Delay judgment until data is available

  • Employ precise terms

  • Gather data

  • Distinguish fact from opinion

  • Encourage critical dialogue

  • Listen actively

  • Modify judgments in light of new information

  • Apply knowledge to new situations

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  • From two Greek words:

    • Psyche meaning “mind”

    • Logos meaning “word”

  • Employs Scientific Method

  • Requires Critical thinking skills

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Goals of Psychology processes

  • Describe

  • Explain

  • Predict

  • Change

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Biopsychology/Neuroscience processes







Gender and/or cultural

Industrial/ organizational


Careers in Psychology

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Psychological Theory processes

  • What is your belief about human nature?

  • What are your assumptions about unconscious/conscious, human development, learning and socialization?

  • What is your understanding about time orientation?

  • What is your belief about the process of change and free will?

  • What is your belief about the role of the helper?

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Perspectives processes

  • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic

    • Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney

  • Behaviorism

    • Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner

  • Humanistic psychology

    • Rogers, Maslow

  • Cognitive psychology

    • Piaget, Ellis, Bandura, Sternberg, Gardner

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Perspectives processes

  • Neuroscience/biopsychology

    • Muller, Lashley, Hubel, Olds, Sperry, Pert

  • Evolutionary psychology

    • Darwin, Lorenz, Wilson, Buss

  • Sociocultural psychology

    • Berry, Greenfield, Brislin

  • Biopsychosocial Model

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Research in Psychology processes

  • Basic research—explores theories, general scientific understanding (meets first three goals of psychology—describe, explain, and predict)

  • Applied research—addresses real-world problems (meets fourth goal—change)

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The Scientific Method processes

  • Review of literature (or ask a question)

  • Develop testable hypothesis

  • Design study and collect data

  • Analyze data—accept or reject hypothesis

  • Publish, replicate, and seek review

  • Build a theory

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Ethical Issues processes

  • Human participants

    • Informed consent

    • Deception

    • Confidentiality/anonymity

    • Special issues for students

  • Non-human participants

  • Ethical issues related to psychotherapy

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Psychological Research processes

  • Experimental research

  • Descriptive research

  • Correlational research

  • Biological research

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Psychological Research processes

  • Experimental research

    • Seeks to identify cause and effect

    • Meets the goal of explanation

    • High level of control over variables

    • High control=limited applicability

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Variables processes

  • Independent—the variable that is manipulated

  • Dependent—the variable that is measured

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Psychological Research processes

  • Experimental research

  • Descriptive research

    • Collection of data without manipulation

    • Low level of artificiality

    • No control of variables=lower explanation of why

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Psychological Research processes

  • Experimental research

  • Descriptive Research

    • Naturalistic Observation—measure and record behavior of participants

    • Surveys—used to determine opinions, attitudes, feelings or behaviors related to a specific issue

    • Case studies—intensive study of a particular case, patient or situation

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Psychological Research processes

  • Experimental research

  • Descriptive research

  • Correlational research

    • Identifies relationships between variables

    • Statistical analysis

    • No cause and effect only relationships

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Psychological Research processes

  • Experimental research

  • Descriptive research

  • Correlational research

  • Biological research

    • Studies brain and nervous system

    • Identifies cause, description and prediction

    • Shares advantages/disadvantages of other three types

    • Several methods of study (see text pp. 37-38)

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Variables processes

A psychology student decided to design a study to determine the correlation between the number of hours a student studied and final exam score.

  • Identify the independent and dependent variables in this study

  • Propose a simple design for this study

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Problems to research processes

  • Experimenter bias

    • Safeguarded by using blind or double blind studies

  • Ethnocentrism

    • A particular type of experimenter bias in which one assumes (remember) that what holds for one’s own culture is also true for other cultures

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Problems to research processes

  • Sample bias—using a sample that is not representative of the general population

    • Safeguarded by use of random or representative sampling or random assignment

  • Participant bias—occurs when participants attempt to present themselves in a particular light

    • Safeguarded by anonymity, double blind methods, etc.

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Correlation processes

  • By observing or measuring two or more variables, one can determine a relationship or correlation

  • Positive correlation—the two variables move or vary in the same direction

  • Negative correlation—the two variable move or vary in opposite directions

  • Zero correlation—no relationship

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Correlation processes

  • Correlation Coefficients

    • Vary from -1.00 to +1.00

    • Numerical value indicates the relative strength of the relationship between the two variables

    • +/- Indicates direction of relationship

    • Relationship can be STRONG whether it is a positive or negative relationship

    • REMEMBER: “0” indicates NO RELATIONSHIP

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The Correlational Method processes

  • Correlational data can be graphed and a “line of best fit” can be drawn

    • Positive correlation = variables change in the same direction

    • Negative correlation = variables change in the opposite direction

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No Correlation processes

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Discussion processes

As a critically thinking student of psychology, you wish to study the relationship between good manners in the lunchroom and aggressive play on the playground among second grade students.

  • Identify the variables and types

  • What type of research would you be doing?

  • What research method would you use?

  • What are some ethical issues involved?

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Discussion processes

  • After completing the above study, you determine a correlation coefficient of -0.89. What conclusions could you draw? Prepare to defend your conclusions.