Final Exam Review. Material-Process-Geometry Relationships. Function. Role of Prod Engr. Material. Geometry. Role of Mfg Engr. Process. Materials in Manufacturing . Most engineering materials can be classified into one of four basic categories: Metals Ceramics Polymers Composites.
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Role of Prod Engr
Role of Mfg Engr
Figure 3.4 ‑ True stress‑strain curve for the previous engineering stress‑strain plot in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.5 True stress‑strain curve plotted on log‑log scale.
Scanning electron micrograph taken using backscattered electrons, of a partly recrystallized Al-Zr alloy. The large defect-free recrystallized grains can be seen consuming the deformed cellular microstructure.
Figure 6.4 Phase diagram for iron‑carbon system, up to about 6% carbon.Allotropic Transformation and Tempering
Precipitation Hardening - Al 6022 (Mg-Si) about 6% carbon.
Figure 27.5 Precipitation hardening: (a) phase diagram of an alloy system consisting of metals A and B that can be precipitation hardened; and (b) heat treatment: (1) solution treatment, (2) quenching, and (3) precipitation treatment.
Effect of Higher Shear Plane Angle about 6% carbon.
Figure 21.12 Effect of shear plane angle : (a) higher with a resulting lower shear plane area; (b) smaller with a corresponding larger shear plane area. Note that the rake angle is larger in (a), which tends to increase shear angle according to the Merchant equation
where MRR = material removal rate
The significance of HPu is that it can be used: 1) to determine the size of the machine tool required to perform a particular cutting operation; and 2) the size of the cutting force on the workholding and cutting tools.
HPu ~ hp/in3/min
Cf ~ correction factor
MRR ~ in3/min
V ~ ft/min
E ~ machine tool efficiency
33,000 ~ conversion between ft-lb & hp
= (200 m/min)(103 mm/m)(0.25 mm)(7.5 mm)
= 375,000 mm3/min = 6250 mm3/s
= 17,500 W = 17.5 kW
= 17.5/0.90 = 19.44 kW
Casting about 6% carbon.
Common process attributes:
Channel through which molten metal flows into cavity from outside of mold
Minimum mold filling time, MFT
Q: volumetric flow rate, cm3/s
V: mold cavity volume, cm3
where TST = total solidification time;
V = volume of the casting;
A = surface area of casting;
n = exponent usually taken to have a value = 2; and
Cm is moldconstant
Figure 6.2 Phase diagram for the copper‑nickel alloy system.
Figure 10.8 Shrinkage of a cylindrical casting during solidification and cooling: (0) starting level of molten metal immediately after pouring; (1) reduction in level caused by liquid contraction during cooling (dimensional reductions are exaggerated for clarity).
Figure 10.8 (2) reduction in height and formation of shrinkage cavity caused by solidification shrinkage; (3) further reduction in height and diameter due to thermal contraction during cooling of solid metal (dimensional reductions are exaggerated for clarity).