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Enhancing Preschool Literacy Skills with Software and Internet Technologies. Julie Coiro University of Connecticut [email protected] . Growing up in a digital world…. while learning how to participate and contribute in literate ways. The Current Climate.

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Enhancing Preschool Literacy Skills with Software and Internet Technologies

Julie Coiro

University of Connecticut

[email protected]


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Growing up in a digital world… Internet Technologies



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The Current Climate ways.

  • In 2003, 67% of children in nursery school and 80% in kindergarten used the computer

  • Also, 1/4 (23%) of children in nursery school and 1/3 (32%) in kindergarten used the Internet

  • By high school, nearly all students (97%) used computers, and a majority (80%) used the Internet.

    -- (NCES, 2005)


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The Current Climate ways.

  • "Computers …open new and unforeseen avenues for learning” (Douglas Clements, 2001)

  • “Computers are redefining how we interact with others and how we gain knowledge about the world around us…and they are increasingly important in our daily lives.” (Mark Ginsburg, Executive Director, NAEYC, 2001).


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The Current Climate ways.

  • “Global calls are being made for ICT to be understood as a multifunctional tool for Early Learning that is used to introduce and support, but not replace, real life experiences and physical activities” (IBM Kidsmart, 2004).


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The Current Research Climate ways.

  • There are many opinions but few recent facts about the impact of technology use on preschoolers (Skeele & Stefankiewicz, 2002).

  • In an effort to review, replicate, and extend National Reading Panel Subcommittee Report on Technology, we found only 10 studies from 1986-2002 involving preschoolers and literacy that met even our extended criteria. The real potential depended upon the teacher’s ability to make appropriate decisions about design, social interaction, and individual differences (Coiro et al., 2003).


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The Current Research Climate ways.

  • Systematic, empirically grounded research that focuses on new technologies and early literacy, particularly outside the United States, is extremely limited (Lankshear & Knobel, 2003).

  • Research to determine the long-term effects of computer use on young children is desperately needed(Future of Children, David & Lucille Packard Foundation, 2001).


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What do we know from research? ways.

  • What is developmentally appropriate for preschoolers?

  • What are the benefits of preschool technology use?

  • How do these benefits map onto early language and literacy development?

  • How might the Internet impact early language and literacy learning in a preschool classroom?

  • Where should research be headed next?


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Five areas of children’s development ways.

  • Physical well-being & fine/gross motor skills

  • Social and emotional development

  • Motivation and engagement

  • Language development

  • General knowledge and cognition

    -- National Education Goals Panel


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Young children learn through… ways.

  • Play and exploration

  • Social interaction with adults and other children

  • A “need to know”

    -- Northwest Educational

    Technology Consortium (2003)


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Technology in children’s play should enable children to

  • Discharge or restore personal energy while engaged in something interesting

  • Act out and explore roles and rules for adults

  • Gain a sense of control

  • Experience new learning in a relaxed atmosphere

  • Develop sense of self and relations to others through group work, collaboration, and competition

  • Explore abstract or symbolic meanings

    -- Verenikina, Harris, & Lysaght (2003) Play, technology, and children’s development


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Emergent Literacy Learning

Emergent Literacy is“the belief that preschoolers must observe and be engaged in literacy-related activities in which reading and writing is used to accomplish real goals”

“Scribbling and invented spelling = real reading”

--- Teale & Sulzby, 1989


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Reading and Writing

  • Listening to stories

  • Playing rhyming games

  • Matching letters

  • Exploring print and its messages

  • Actively constructing their learning

    -- International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), 1998


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Good literacy instruction provides opportunities for ...

  • Creatively responding to texts or topics

  • Practice & reinforcement with important skills

  • Referencing multimedia sources of information

  • Applying literacy in authentic environments

  • Exploring new forms and purposes for reading and writing

Good computer technologies should provide these too!


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Preschool Literacy Needs

  • Oral language development

  • Concepts of print and phonological awareness

  • Vocabulary and background knowledge

  • Exploration and play

  • Logic, Critical Thinking, and Problem Solving

  • Social Interaction with Others

  • Connecting Reading and Writing


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Impact of computer use on oral language development

  • Computers can serve as catalysts for social interaction, cooperation and conversations related to children’s work (Clements, Nastasi, & Swaminathan, 1993; Nastasi, 1993).

  • Computer play encourages longer, more complex speech and the development of fluency (Davidson & Wright, 1994).

  • Children tend to narrate what they are doing as they draw pictures or more objects and characters on the screen (Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1994).

  • Computer use fosters greater language production (increased number of spoken words a minute), number of foreign language words learned, and amount of communication to teach other students (Pierce, 1994).


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Oral Language Development

Play with nursery rhymes and songs

Good modeled reading aloud for enjoyment

Leap Into Nursery Rhymes (Leap into Learning)

Options to record your own voice and play back


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Exploring the connections between oral language and print

Encourage book conversations, dramatic play, and personal responses (paired with drawing, taking pictures, singing, and storytelling)

Options to record your own voice and play back


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Oral Language and …Creative Responding

KID PIX STUDIO

(painting and animation tools, slide show maker, text tools, stamps)

Research shows that…

Children talk, draw and write more with a partner and open-ended software.


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Concepts of Print and Phonological Awareness

  • Opportunity to explore print in many forms and begin to notice functions and patterns when interacting with print

  • Awareness of title, author, direction, print tells story, individual words and letters

  • Explore auditory skill awareness of words, rhymes, syllables, and individual letter sounds.


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Impact of preschool computer use on concepts of print, phonological awareness, and phonics

  • Research in this area is not as rich or current and many studies show no difference compared to control group or suggest that teachers make the difference rather than one program or another (Coiro et al., 2003).

  • Specific reading skills, particularly school language and rhyming, can be taught using drill and practice software (Gore, Morris, Mass, & Anderson, 1989).

  • Computer use positively impacted early literacy skills such as letter naming, beginning word recognition, and interpreting symbols, letters, and words (Pierce, 1994).


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Impact of preschool computer use on concepts of print, phonological awareness, and phonics

  • Preschoolers in Holland increased blending skills and carried over their skills to foster decoding proficiency in Grade 1 (Reitsma & Wesseling, 1998).

  • Autistic preschoolers in the U.S. increased time on task and ability to read and match words compared to those in control group (Williams, Writing, Callaghan, & Coughlan, 2002).

  • Special education preschoolers in Israel increased skills in phonological awareness, letter naming, and word recognition (Mioduser, Tur-Kaspa, & Leitner, 2000).


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Concepts of Print and Phonological Awareness phonological awareness, and phonics

Level 2

Hearing syllables

LEAP INTO NURSERY RHYMES

by Leap Into Learning

Level 3

Hearing sounds


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Concepts of Print phonological awareness, and phonics

Living Books, Little Monster Goes to School, by Broderbund


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Concepts of Print and Phonological Awareness phonological awareness, and phonics

BAILEY’S BOOK HOUSE

by Edmark


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Impact of computer use on preschooler’s vocabulary and background knowledge

  • Another area with less amount of work done - possibly due to other priorities.

  • 3 and 4 year olds who used computers with supporting activities had significantly greater gains in intelligence, verbal skills, structural knowledge, long-term memory, and conceptual skills (Haughland, 1992).


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Vocabulary and background knowledgeBackground Knowledge

LET’S EXPLORE THE JUNGLE

by Humongous Entertainment


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Vocabulary and background knowledgeBackground Knowledge

Let’s Explore The Jungle, by Humongous Entertainment


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Vocabulary and background knowledgeBackground Knowledge

Let’s Explore The Jungle, by Humongous Entertainment


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Vocabulary and background knowledgeBackground Knowledge

TRAVEL THE WORLD WITH TIMMY, DELUXE

by Edmark


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Impact of preschool computer use on exploration and play background knowledge

  • Computers provide a private place for children to practice without fear of public failure (Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1994).

  • Computers allow young children to represent, manipulate, and act on variables not possible in the physical world (Clements, 1998; Seng, 1998).

  • Computers provide a different source of “multisensory / multimedia experiences” that can enhance, extend, and augment a child’s learning experience (Thovenelle & Bewick, 2003).

  • The teacher’s role is to create an environment that fosters awareness and exploration and then support as appropriate (Davidson & Wright, 1994).


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Tools for authentic exploration of pictures, letters, words and sounds

STANLEY’S STORY STICKERS

by Edmark

Also THEME WEAVERS for Animals by Edmark



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Logic, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving and sounds

  • Opportunities to solve problems in authentic contexts that are safe, supportive, and challenging.

  • Explore environments with little or no text to practice and build other strategies.

Pajama Sam

I Spy, Jr.

Maze Madness


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Impact of Computer Use on Logic, Critical Thinking, and Problem Solving

  • Technology offers multiple ways to solve a problem and multiple paths to a goal (Clements, 1999).

  • Computer use helped children to…

    • move from concrete to symbolic representational thought (Pierce, 1994);

    • to show more sophistication in classification and logical thinking (Clements & Nastasi, 1993) and;

    • Improve their spatial problem solving, logical problem solving, concentration, and memory (Haughland, 1992).


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Logic, Critical Thinking, and Problem Solving Problem Solving

I SPY Jr.

by Scholastic New Media

Form new lists, sort pictures


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Logic, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Problem Solving

Putt-Putt, Pajama Sam and

Freddi Fish

by Humongous Entertainment


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Logic, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Problem Solving

Freddi Fish’ Maze Madness

by Humongous Entertainment

Create your own mazes and then play in them!


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Logic, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Problem Solving

Logical Journey of the Zoombinis

by Broderbund

logic and pattern recognition


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Logic, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Problem Solving

Thinkin’ Things I, II, and III

by Edmark

patterns in music, art, and space


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Impact of Preschool Computer Use on Social Interaction Problem Solving

  • Computers contribute to social development (NAEYC, 1996) as children share leadership roles and initiate interactions more frequently (Clements, 1994; Haughland & Wright, 1997)

  • Compared to more traditional activities, such as puzzle assembly or block building, the computer elicits more social interaction and different types of interaction (Clements, Nastasi, & Swaminathan, 1993).


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Impact of Preschool Computer Use on Social Interaction Problem Solving

  • Computers are more effective when used in classrooms and connected to authentic daily learning activities compared to computer lab (Davis & Shade, 1999).

  • A well-designed computer center can promote almost as much social interaction as dramatic play and for some children it offers a unique medium that taps their ability to creatively collaborate with their peers (Anderson, Hilton, & Wouden-Miller, in press)

  • For many children, the computer is a catalyst for information sharing, language development, and decision making (Wright, 1994; Sarama & Clements, 2001; Fischer & Gillespie, 2003).


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Interacting With Others Problem Solving

Let’s Explore the Jungle

Pajama Sam; Putt-Putt


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…social interactions with Problem Solvingteachers and parents.

Social interaction with peers and multi-age groups…


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Impact of Preschool Computer Use on Connecting Problem SolvingReading and Writing

  • Word processing encourages writing and motivation to improve writing skills (Clements & Nastasi, 1993).

  • A word processor provides scaffolding (Clements & Nastasi, 1993); allows children to compose and revise text without being distracted by the fine motor aspects of letter formation (Davis & Shade, 1994);


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Connecting Reading and Writing Problem Solving

  • Respect that some children consider drawings to be actual writing & others will respond with a clear message or story

  • Practice writing with real, authentic and age-appropriate print-related experiences

  • Need time to observe, explore and experiment with writing)

Kid Works Deluxe

Kid Pix Studio

Digital Cameras


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Connecting Reading and Writing Problem Solving

KID WORKS DELUXE

(text to speech, book maker, painting tools, text tools, stamps)


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Connecting Reading and Writing Problem Solving

KID PIX STUDIO

Create patterns, label with beginning letters, or write a sentence.



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Other Handy Tools Problem Solving

Scanner

Kiddy Mouse

Color printer

Trackball?

Children’s

keyboard?

Drawing Tablet

Alphasmart 3000


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Explore new Internet literacies literacy learning in a preschool classroom?What is a hyperlink?

Click on D

Read a daffodil rhyme

Make a Father’s Day card

Color-by-number daisies

Http://www.enchantedlearning.com


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Explore new Internet literacies: literacy learning in a preschool classroom?Interactivity

Concentration Games

Online puzzles

Hear new sounds

Read-Aloud Stories

See a movie

Individualized

guidance


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Internet Workshop literacy learning in a preschool classroom? Activities

Design and send an e-card to a relative

Import a digital photo and play on online puzzle with it

Draw a question from the Internet Inquiry Basket

www.jigzone.com


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Join an literacy learning in a preschool classroom? Internet Project

We Know Why

Alexander Wanted to

Move to Australia!!!

Alex’s Scribbles

Internet Writing

Click here


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So where do we go from here?? literacy learning in a preschool classroom?


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Expanding programs of research: Preschoolers and ICT literacy learning in a preschool classroom?

  • IBM Kidsmart Early Learning Program

    (1998-current) 117+ settings, 7 countries

    [France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, UK, and U.S.]

    As long as there is appropriate software, teachers with a positive attitude, an environment which facilitates social interaction, accessibility, and equal opportunity, computers can have a positive impact on the learning environment in an early childhood centre.


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Expanding programs of research: Preschoolers and ICT literacy learning in a preschool classroom?

  • Children of the New Millennium Project (Susan Hill, 2004) focuses on new and print-based literacies. The curriculum is inquiry based, child-initiated, social, collaborative, and connected between home and school.

  • “The learning in these projects comes from questions, puzzles, or the interests of young children….Teachers were bowled over by what they found about preschool children’s new learning [with the Internet]”.


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Expanding programs of research: Preschoolers and ICT literacy learning in a preschool classroom?

  • Young Children and Learning Technologies International Federation for Information Processing Working Group 3.5 Open Conference. Sydney, Australia, July 2003 (Wright, McDougall, Nurnane, & Lowe)

  • Over 40 research projects with preschool children and their teachers as they explore new information and communication technologies (ICT).

  • http://crpit.com/Vol34.html


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Expanding programs of research: Preschoolers and ICT literacy learning in a preschool classroom?

  • Early Years ICT in Scotland (2003)

  • They note the scarcity of quality research findings and their work generated many more questions than answers -- “There are generalized claims about the positive impact of ICT without any evidence of measured impact being offered”.

  • The impact of preschool use of ICT depends on how teachers use ICT and interact with children to maximize the opportunities available.


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Research Into Practice literacy learning in a preschool classroom?

  • Please refer to your handouts for ideas about…

    • Research highlights and references

    • Matching software to preschool literacy needs

    • NETS PreK-2 Technology Performance Indicators

    • Ten tips for previewing educational software

    • Ideas for using digital photographs in the classroom

    • Thematic applications of Kid Pix Drawing Tools

    • Classroom Management Ideas

    • Internet Project, Internet Inquiry, and Internet Resources

      Thank you!Julie Coiro ([email protected])


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