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Energy - Introduction - Non-renewable - Renewables - Transportation. Energy trivia…. USA has 4.5% of the world’s population 25% of world’s commercial energy India: 16.4% of the population 3% of world’s commercial energy. United States. Energy Sources for Total US Energy Use. 40% Oil

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energy trivia
Energy trivia…
  • USA has 4.5% of the world’s population
  • 25% of world’s commercial energy
  • India:
    • 16.4% of the population
    • 3% of world’s commercial energy
energy sources for total us energy use
Energy Sources for Total US Energy Use
  • 40% Oil
  • 22% Coal
  • 22% Natural Gas
  • 7% Nuclear
  • 5% Hydropower, Geothermal, Solar
  • 4% Biomass
energy sources for transportation sector
Energy Sources for Transportation Sector
  • 98% Oil
  • 2% Natural Gas and Electricity (from a variety of sources)
electricity energy source
Electricity Energy Source

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec2_2.pdf

nonrenewable and renewable
Nonrenewables

Oil

Coal

Natural gas

Nuclear

Renewables

Solar

Wind

Biomass

Geothermal

Hydroelectric

What is it?

Availability

Cost

Impacts

Nonrenewable and renewable
slide8
Oil
  • Refining through distillation
oil availability
Oil: Availability
  • Peak of oil production expected 2010-2030.
    • Some say it has already occurred
  • World oil economic depletion 2035-84 (27 to 76 years from now)
  • BUT: Oil use is growing

(18% from 1990-2003)

proven oil reserves at end 2004
Proven oil reserves at end 2004
  • ~2/3 of world’s reserves in the Middle East.
  • 20% of world’s reserves in Saudi Arabia.
  • 3% in United States
oil maintaining production
Oil: Maintaining Production?
  • New Oil Field Finds?
  • Oil Shale (or, heavy oil)
    • costs 75% more than pumped oil
    • mining waste, low net energy yield
  • Tar Sands
    • severe environmental problems, low net energy yield
  • New Technology to Exact more Oil from Existing Sites?
    • Some already in place now
    • Note: world production has increased <10% in the last two decades
oil consequences
Oil: Consequences

Heidi Snell

Oil spill off the Galapagos Islands 2001

oil evaluation
Oil: Evaluation

Availability and cost

  • Still available and cheap (sort of) and will be for short-term
    • probably not for mid-term
    • definitely not for long-term

Net energy efficiency

  • High

Environmental and other costs

  • Pollution (air and water)
    • carbon dioxide, NOx, SOx
  • Political dependence
slide15

COAL

http://www.ohvec.org/galleries/mountaintop_removal/007/43.html

coal what is it
Coal: What is it?
  • Remains of buried swamp plants that have been pressurized over eons.
    • Largely carbon, with varying amounts of water and sulfur:
    • Lignite (brown coal)
      • low heat, low sulfur content
    • Bituminous coal (soft coal)
      • high heat, usually high sulfur content
    • Anthracite (hard coal)
      • high heat, low sulfur content
coal supply expectations
Coal: Supply Expectations
  • Identified coal reserves:
    • last 220 yrs at current rate of use
    • last only 65 yrs if rate rises 2% per yr
  • Unidentified coal reserves:
    • last 900 yrs at current rate of use
    • last 149 yrs if rate rises 2% per yr

MOST ABUNDANT FOSSIL FUEL

proved coal reserves at end 2004
Proved coal reserves at end 2004
  • 66% world’s known reserves in :
    • United States (24%)
    • former Soviet Union
    • China
  • US anthracite:
    • only 2% of total
coal cost
Coal: Cost
  • Cost
    • Low
    • However
      • many old coal-burning facilities
      • 45% of cost of new plant is environmental compliance
coal environmental impacts
Coal: Environmental Impacts
  • Dirtiest fossil fuel
  • Mining effects:
  • Combustion Effects:
coal evaluation
Coal: evaluation
  • Availability
    • High
  • Cost
    • Cheap without environmental controls
    • Getting more expensive
  • Environmental effects
    • HIGH
conventional vs unconventional ng vs biogas
Conventional vs Unconventional NG vs Biogas
  • found with oil deposits = conventional
  • found by itself = unconventional
  • gas from biomass of recent origin = biogas
    • landfills, cows, termites, decomposition
    • methane
proven natural gas reserves at end 2004
Proven natural gas reserves at end 2004
  • 40% of known reserves in former Soviet republics
  • 6% of known reserves in US
  • In 2003 net imports of natural gas were ~15% of gas consumed
other uses of natural gas
Other uses of natural gas
  • Chemical industry
    • Feedstock for ammonia, methanol, ethylene
  • Energy source
  • “US Government policy has somehow concluded that natural gas should be the burned fuel of choice. That is something the equivalent of burning rare mahogany rather than common pine.”
  • Andrew Liveris
  • CEO Dow Chemical

California energy usage

natural gas availability
Natural Gas: Availability
  • At PRESENT rate of use:
    • US conventional supplies: 65-80 years
    • World conventional supplies: 125 years
    • Unconventional supplies: >200 years
  • Rates increasing 2% per year
    •  200 year supply becomes 80 year supply
natural gas environmental impacts
Natural Gas: Environmental Impacts
  • Cleanest of all fossil fuels
natural gas1
Natural Gas:
  • Availability:
  • Cost
    • Going up
  • Env effects
    • Clean for a fossil fuel, but still many issues
nuclear fission non renewable
Nuclear Fission: Non-Renewable?
  • Conventional Nuclear Reactors: Splits uranium-235
  • U-235 is just 0.7% of total U supply
  • U-238 is >99% of world’s U
  • Availability of U-235: 100-200 years
  • Other potential nuclear fission reactors: breeders reactors: could use U-238
the evolution of nuclear power
The evolution of nuclear power
  • 1961: 1
  • 1969: 25
  • 1975: 31
  • 1979: 20
  • 1985: 14
  • 1990: 3

No new plants licensed since 1978

April 9, 1979

chernobyl 1986
Chernobyl, 1986

www.spaceman.ca/gallery/ chernobyl/CHERNOBYL_002

can nuclear power ever be safe
Can nuclear power ever be safe?

http://www.angelfire.com/extreme4/kiddofspeed/chapter11.html

nuclear waste
Nuclear waste
  • Low level waste
    • 100-500 y
  • High level waste
    • 100,000 – 240,000 y
  • Who has responsibility for waste in US??
nuclear energy evaluation
Nuclear energy - evaluation
  • Availability:
    • Short term
    • Possibly renewable in long term
  • Cost
    • High, though promoted as cheap
  • Waste
    • No known safe storage
  • Efficiency
    • Low
  • Safety
solar types
Solar: types
  • Solar heating
    • Passive

South >>

If in northern hemisphere,

solar types1
SOLAR: types

Photovoltaics

pv past and future
PV: past and future
  • Global production increasing: 32% from 2003-2004
  • Highly encouraged and supported by government in Japan and Germany
  • Why not USA?
  • Future:
    • PV roof arrays
    • PV shingles

These roof shingles are coated with PV cells made of amorphous silicon. When installation is complete, the PV shingles look much like ordinary roofing shingles, but they generate electricity. http://www.eere.energy.gov/solar/photovoltaics.html

OLYMPIC SIZE Site of the 1996 Olympic swimming competitions, Georgia Tech\'s Aquatic Center is powered by one of the world\'s largest grid-connected rooftop solar arrays (blue and gray structure).GEORGIA TECH PHOTO

solar evaluation
SOLAR: Evaluation

1. Availability

slide55
Wind

http://www.friendsofbruce.ca/images/calif_wind_farm.jpg

California Wind Farm

http://www.vma.cape.com/~relweb/Wind%20Power.htm

Proposed off shore wind farm in Cape Cod

wind current status1
Wind: current status
  • Increased 27% in 2004
  • Still only 0.4 % US total energy
  • Significant in some countries:
    • Denmark, Northern Germany, parts of Spain
    • 20-40% of electrical loads
      • Still reliable energy grid with no backup system
wind evaluation
Wind: Evaluation

1. Availability

wind evaluation1
Wind: Evaluation

1. Availability

2. Cost

3. Consequences

http://www.microclimetrics.com/public.cfm

Great Plains, USA

biomass how it works
Biomass: How it works

Burn

Solid Biomass

Convert

Gas

Liquid

Biogas

(methane)

Alcohols

(methanol,

ethanol)

Used for

transportation

(gasohol)

New: Biodiesel

biomass evaluation
Biomass: Evaluation

1. Availability

2. Cost

3. Consequences

* No net increase in CO2

geothermal how it works
Geothermal: how it works

http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/children/oise/pictures/energy/geothermal/

geothermal
Geothermal

1. Availability

2. Cost

3. Consequences

http://www.nrel.gov/clean_energy/geoelectricity.html

Geothermal electricity plant,

Imperial Valley, CA

hydropower dams
Hydropower: DAMS

1. Availability

2. Cost

3. Consequences

Glen Canyon Dam

tidal and wave power
Tidal and wave power

Artist\'s conception of a wave farm of 750-kW Pelamis wave converters, one of which is being installed off the coast of Scotland by maker Ocean Power Delivery Ltd.

OCEAN POWER DELIVERY LTD. PHOTO

conservation
Conservation

1. Availability

2. Cost

3. Consequences

electricity you have a choice

Electricity:YOU have a choice!

http://www.green-e.org/

slide74

http://www.resource-solutions.org/lib/librarypdfs/Purchasing_Guide_for_Web.pdfhttp://www.resource-solutions.org/lib/librarypdfs/Purchasing_Guide_for_Web.pdf

fueling our vehicles
Fueling our vehicles
  • Ethanol and biodiesel?
  • Hybrids?
  • Hydrogen?

City of San Diego

ethanol a renewable biofuel
Ethanol: a renewable biofuel
  • Energy legislation requires refiners to blend 7.5 million gal ethanol into gas by 2012 (nearly double current amount)
  • Displace >2 billion barrels of imported crude oil
  • Distilled from corn or other vegetative material
  • Net energy efficiency???
    • takes 29% more energy to make then ethanol provides (Patzek – oil background)
    • 67% energy gain (USDA – corn biased?)
    • 35% energy gain (Energy Department)
biodeisel
Biodiesel:

Generated from soybeans or oilseed plants

Can be blended with regular diesel and run in any engine

Still costs more

Use is growing, but still less than ethanol

Biodeisel
hybrid cars
Hybrid cars
  • Hybrid of gas and electric
  • Why better gas mileage?
  • How much better?
  • Honda Civic
    • Hybrid: 46 city, 51 highway
    • Normal: 32 city, 38 highway
  • Honda Insight 60 city, 66 highway
  • Toyota Prius 60 City, 51 highway
  • Ford Escape SUV, 4 WD
    • Hybrid: 33 City, 29 highway
    • Normal: 21 city, 24 highway
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