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CPET 355 . 16. Internetworking, Addressing, and Routing Paul I-Hai Lin, Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology Purdue University, Fort Wayne Campus. Network Layer - an Overview. Getting data packets from the source all the way to the destination

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cpet 355
CPET 355

16.

Internetworking, Addressing, and Routing

Paul I-Hai Lin, Professor

Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology

Purdue University, Fort Wayne Campus

Prof. Paul Lin

network layer an overview
Network Layer - an Overview
  • Getting data packets from the source all the way to the destination
  • Dealing with end-to-end transmission
  • Need to know
    • Topology of the communication subnet (routers)
    • Chose paths (routing algorithms)

Prof. Paul Lin

position of network layer
Position of Network Layer

Courtesy - From Fig. 1, Page 467, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network layer duties
Network Layer Duties

Courtesy - From Fig. 2, Page 468, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network layer topics of discussion
Network LayerTopics of Discussion
  • Network Layer Design Issue
    • Services to the TCP Layer
      • Connectionless Services (Datagram)
      • Connection-Oriented Services (Virtual Circuit)
    • Subnets
  • Internetworking
  • Addressing
  • Routing

Prof. Paul Lin

internetworks
Internetworks
  • Host A -> Host D
  • 4 LANS, 1 WAN
  • S1, S2, S3: Switch or Router
  • f1, f2: Interface
  • Three links: S1 -> S2 -> s3

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.1, Page 471, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

links in an internetwork
Links in an Internetwork

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.2, Page 472, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network layer in an internetwork
Network Layer in an Internetwork

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.3 Page 473, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network layer at the source
Network Layer at the Source
  • Creating Source and Destination Address, Fragmentation

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.4 Page 473, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network layer at router or switch
Network Layer at Router or Switch
  • Routing Table, Fragmentation

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.5 Page 474, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network layer at destination
Network Layer at Destination
  • Corrupted packet, Fragments

Courtesy - From Fig. 196 Page 475, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

quality of service requirements
Quality of ServiceRequirements

From Fig. 5-30, Page 397, Computer Networks, 4th edition, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Prentice Hall

Prof. Paul Lin

packet switched network internet
Packet-Switched Network - Internet
  • Packets – Variable Length Data Blocks; Node to Node Delivery
  • Virtual Circuit – WAN, Frame Relaying, ATM applications, call setup a single route

Courtesy - From Fig. 196 Page 475, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

packet switched network internet1
Packet-Switched Network - Internet
  • Datagram Approach – no fixed path, routing, out of order
  • Packets == Datagrams

Courtesy - From Fig. 196 Page 475, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

addressing
Addressing
  • Internet Address – IP Address
    • Classful addressing – original architecture
      • Class A, B, C, D, and E
    • Classless addressing – mid 1990s
  • IPv4
    • 32-bit binary number
    • Dotted-Decimal Notation

128.11.3.31

255.255.255.0

  • IPv6 - 128-bit

Prof. Paul Lin

addressing ipv4
Addressing – IPV4
  • Network ID, Host ID
  • Class A – 128 blocks (First Byte), 16,777,216 hosts
  • Class B – 16,384 blocks (First & Second Byte), 65536 hosts
  • Class C – 2,097,152 blocks (First, Second, Third byte), 256 hosts
  • Class D – 1 block, Multicasting

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.10 Page 479, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

finding the class
Finding the Class

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.12 Page 480, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

netid and hostid
Netid and Hostid

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.13 Page 481, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

classes and blocks netid 73
Classes and Blocks - Netid 73

128 Blocks; 16,777,216 Hosts

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.14 Page 482, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

blocks in class b network
Blocks in Class B Network

16384 Blocks; 65536 Hosts

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.15 Page 483, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

blocks in class c network
Blocks in Class C Network

2,097,152 Blocks; 255 Hosts

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.16 Page 484, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network address
Network Address
  • An address defines a network with all host-id = 0

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.17 Page 484, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

sample internet
Sample Internet

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.18 Page 486, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

subnetting
Subnetting
  • Class B – 1 block, 65536 hosts (16-bit)
  • Subnets
    • 2 sub-blocks (1-bit), 36768 hosts (15-bit)
    • 4 sub-blocks (2-bit), 18384 hosts (14-bit)
    • 128 sub-blocks (7-bit), 512 host (9-bit)

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.19 Page 487, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

subnetting 3 level hierarchy
Subnetting – 3 Level Hierarchy
  • Three levels: Site, Subnet, Host

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.20 Page 487, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

a network with and without subnetting
A Network With and Without Subnetting

Courtesy - From Fig. 19.21 Page 488, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

masks
Masks

Courtesy - From Table 19.1 Page 489, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

supernetting
Supernetting
  • An organization can combine several class C block to form a larger range of addresses

Prof. Paul Lin

classless addressing
Classless Addressing
  • Variable-Length Block (2, 4, 128, etc)
  • Mask
  • Finding the Network Address
  • Subnetting
  • CIDR (Classes InterDomain Routing)

Prof. Paul Lin

dynamic address configuration
Dynamic Address Configuration
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
    • Database 1 (static) - Physical addresses to IP addresses
    • Database 2 (dynamic) – Available IP, Lease Time

Prof. Paul Lin

network address translation
Network Address Translation
  • Internally, a large set of addresses
  • Externally, one address, or a small set of addresses

Courtesy – Table 19.2 Page 494, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

a nat example
A NAT Example
  • Private address: 172.18.0.0 to 172.18.255.255
  • NAT Router address: 200.24.5.8

Courtesy – Fig 19.25 Page 495, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

address translation
Address Translation
  • Private address: 172.18.0.0 to 172.18.255.255
  • NAT Router address: 200.24.5.8

Courtesy – Fig. 19.25 Page 495, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

address translation cont
Address Translation (cont.)

Courtesy – Fig. 19.25 Page 495, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

translation table
Translation Table

Courtesy – Table 19.3 Page 497, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

routing techniques
Routing Techniques
  • Routing Tables
  • Next-Hop Routing
  • Network-Specific Routing
  • Host-Specific Routing
  • Default Routing

Prof. Paul Lin

translation table1
Translation Table

Courtesy – Fig. 19.27 Page 496, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

next hop routing
Next-Hop Routing

Courtesy – Fig. 19.28 Page 498, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

network specific routing
Network-Specific Routing

Courtesy – Fig. 19.29 Page 498, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

host specific routing
Host-Specific Routing

Courtesy – Fig. 19.30 Page 499, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

default routing
Default Routing

Courtesy – Fig. 19.31 Page 500, Data Communications and Networks, 3rd edition, Forouzan, McGrawHill

Prof. Paul Lin

more on routing
More on Routing
  • Static vs Dynamic
    • Static Routing Table
    • Dynamic Routing Table and Protocols
      • RIP – Routing Information Protocol
      • OSPF – Open Shortest Path First
      • BGF – Border Gateway Protocol
  • Routing Tables
    • For Classful Addressing
    • For Classless Addressing (CIDR)

Prof. Paul Lin

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