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Chapter 9. Latin America/Ecuador. Latin America. continent and a half more than twenty different countries dozens of different languages including Native Indian dialects diverse geography—Andes mountains, Amazon basin, Peruvian-Chilean deserts. Musical genres of Latin America. Salsa

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Chapter 9 l.jpg

Chapter 9

Latin America/Ecuador


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Latin America

  • continent and a half

  • more than twenty different countries

  • dozens of different languages including Native Indian dialects

  • diverse geography—Andes mountains, Amazon basin, Peruvian-Chilean deserts.


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Musical genres of Latin America

  • Salsa

  • bossa nova

  • calypso

  • tango


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claves

maracas

Percussion instruments


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Percussion (2)

  • bongos

  • congas


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Joropo

  • the national dance of Venezuela


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The Venezuelan Joropo

  • CD 4:7 “Pajarillo” (“Little Bird”)

  • very fast triple meter or a slow compound meter

  • bass ostinato in harp

  • cuatro - small, 4-string guitar

  • cross-rhythms (polyrhythms) among the instruments and voice


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Pajarillo - Timbre

  • singing is in a speech-like style (declamatory/recitative) in a narrow melodic range

  • Maracas

  • harp

  • cuatro

  • male solo

    • portamento (sliding topitches)


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Chilean Nueva Canción

  • CD 4:8 “El lazo” (“The Lasso”) Victor Jara

  • contemporary solo folk song

    • by Victor Jara about 1964

    • cueca-derived rhythm

    • text “glorifies the creative genius of rural Chile.”


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El lazo

  • CD 4:8, “El lazo,” is A B A (ternary).

  • 0:15—A part—speech-like melody enters accompanied by a guitar in a free meter

  • 0:55—B part—3/4 and 6/8

  • 3:15—A—The opening speech-like melody and words return

  • 3:53—end


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Bolivian K’antu

  • CD 4:9 “Kutirimunapaq” (“So That We Can Return”)

  • strong rhythms reinforced by drum

  • melodies are based on five-note (pentatonic) scales

  • hocketing distributes parts of a melody to different players

    • k’antu, the melody is “shared” between two groups of panpipes players

  • bamboo panpipes (phukuna, or zampoña in Spanish)

  • large double-headed drums (wankara)

  • triangle (ch’inisku)


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K’antu

  • This is k’antu music, a type of ceremonial panpipe music from the altiplano (high plateau of the southern Andes mountains). This particular example is music of the Kallawaya people who live on the eastern slopes of the Bolivian Andes. The strong rhythmic character of the music is shaped by its dance function. The panpipes and their rhythmic, but simple, melodies performed at different pitch levels in parallel fashion, in a hocketing performance practice, characterize the selection and give the music its unique sound.


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The Quichua of the Northern Andes of Ecuador

  • live in small clusters of houses (comunas) on the slopes of Mt. Cotacachi

  • a traditional people that share a common language, agricultural life style, and similar material culture (houses, style of dress, diet, and so on

  • few motorized vehicles,roads to get to places or telephones for communication, up to 1990, most of the Quichua relied on walking—purina


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The Musical Tradition (of the Quichua): Sanjuán

  • CD 4:10 “Cascarón” (“thick peel, rind, or eggshell—especially a broken one”)

  • short-long-short-long-long-long-long-long motive.

  • A motive is a short, but complete, melodic or rhythmic idea

  • repetitious melody

  • homophonic texture

  • Imbabura harp (a smaller, diatonic version of the Western harp without pedals)

    • golpe (time beater


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Sanjuán and Cotacachi Quichua Lifeways

  • Cada llajta is the idea that every Quichua community has its own special approach to music, customs, dress, and even the dialect of Quichua.

  • arpero (harpist) and golpeador (musical time keeper) play . . .

    • sanjuanes (melodies based on standard motives)

    • comunas (communities) outside Cotacachi (their home community)

      • matrimonio (weddings)

      • misai (private Mass)

      • wawa velorio (child’s wake).


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CD 4:11 “Rusa maria wasi rupajmi” (“Rosa Maria’s House A-Burning”)

  • four basic ideas

    • Tragedy: “Rusa Maria’s house a-burning”

    • Drunkenness: “And Manuel, a father, very drunk”

    • Fright: “Frightened, is crying”

    • Courtship: “And young men and young women went to lie down together”


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CD 4:11 House A-Burning”)

  • speech-like melody

  • male solo

  • narrow melodic range

  • repetitive harp

  • golpe or time-keeping beats on the harp sound-box

  • the recording is very informal. This is a “field recording”


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CD 4:12 “Ilumán tiyu” (“Man of Ilumán”) House A-Burning”)

  • recorded in stereo in a local home by a seasoned musical ensemble

  • short-long-short-long-long-long-long-long rhythm

  • repetitive unison melodies

  • consonant, simple, Western-style harmonies

  • Timbre/Instrumentation

    • solo violin

    • two notched flutes (kenas)

    • drum (bombo)

    • guitars

    • singer(s)


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Kena House A-Burning”)

  • Andean open notched flute, commonly made of cane.

  • It has typically five or six finger-holes in the lower half of the tube and one thumb-hole in the center at the rear.


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The Andean Ensemble Phenomenon House A-Burning”)

  • the spread of Andean music and ensembles (playing traditional Andean instruments) to other parts of the world.

  • Sukay (Quechua for “to work furrows in straight lines” or “to whistle musically”)— “[a]mong the most well-established of U.S.-based Andean groups . . .”

  • Chaskinakuy (Quechua for “to give and receive, hand to hand, among many”)— husband and wife duo self-described as “dedicated revivalists” performing songs in Quechua/Quichua and Spanish on a variety of many native Andean instruments,


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CD 4:13 “Amor imposible” (“Impossible Love”) House A-Burning”)

  • Chaskinakuy

  • Peruvian wayno

  • “Latin American ‘harp-country-genre’”

  • (1) the harp is prominent

  • (2) familiar Andean “bimodality

  • (3) rhythms are tapped on the harp soundbox rather than a drum


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Wawa Velorio House A-Burning”)

  • CD 4:14 Vacación

  • CD 4:15 Ecuadorian Quichua mother’s

  • Wawa velorio is a ritual ceremony or wake for a deceased Quichua child.

    • sanjuán (sung or instrumental dance music in eight-beat phrases and simple meter with golpeador)

    • vacación (non-dance music for harp alone without golpeador

    • CD 4:15 includes part of the Quichua mother’s lament


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Ritual House A-Burning”)

  • “A ritual is a formal practice or custom.”

  • calendric rituals, tied to cycles of agriculture, religion, or national celebrations

  • life cycle rituals such as wawa veloria, a child’s wake]

    • the deceased infant is present, on display, and beautifully presented

    • somehow elevated and connected to the roof to symbolize the child’s transformation into an angel and entry into eternity


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CD 4:16 “Toro barroso” (“Reddish Bull”) House A-Burning”)

  • performed by Don César Muquinche

  • harp-playing has a fuller sound (larger harp sound box, more strings, all made of nylon, recorded in a resonant room)

  • national folk music of the mestizo culture of ecuador


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African-Ecuadorian Music of the Chota River Valley House A-Burning”)

  • CD 4:17 “Vamos pa’ Manabi” (Let’s Go to Manabi”)

  • A popular musical ensemble in 1979, Conjunto Rondador is made up of African-Ecuadorians

  • may be descended from the slaves first brought to Ecuador from Africa in the sixteenth century


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Vamos pa Manabi (2) House A-Burning”)

  • Vibrato: the slight, pulsating fluctuations in the pitch

  • Vibrato adds a distinctive “color” and “richness” to the vocal quality

  • Syncopations

  • polyrhythms

  • repeated patterns

  • bimodal (two-chord) harmony


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Listening House A-Burning”)

  • Bolivian K’antu

    • Panpipes

    • Hocketing

  • “Amor Imposible”

    • Bimodal

    • Golpeador

  • Vacacion from Wawa velorio

    • To drive away the devil


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