Chapter 6 The Stages of Leadership A Developmental View

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Introduction. The chapter emphasizes that situations principals face require different leadership strategies. There is no golden leadership style for every situation. Educational Leaders need to be aware of different techniques and which ones are appropriate at different times. The chapter provides four strategies for handling situations. .

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Chapter 6 The Stages of Leadership A Developmental View

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1. Chapter 6 The Stages of Leadership A Developmental View The Principalship: A Reflective Practice Perspective Sergiovanni, Allen and Bacon, 2001

3. Four leadership strategies and tactics that are available to principals, each being appropriate at different times. Bartering Building Bonding Binding Page 131 & 132

4. Bartering Principals and teachers strike a bargain within which the leader gives to those led something they want in exchange for what the leader wants. Page 131

5. Building Principals provide the climate and interpersonal support that enhances teachers’ opportunities for fulfillment of individual needs for achievement, responsibility, competence, and esteem. Page 131

6. Bonding Principals and teachers develop together a set of shared values about the relationships they want to share and the ties they want to create so that together they can become a community of learners and leaders --- a community of colleagues. Page 132

7. Binding Principals and teachers together commit themselves to a set of shared values and ideas that ties them together as a “we”. Page 132

8. The Sources of Authority for Leadership Traditional -Leadership practices rely on bureaucratic values as their source of authority. Teachers are looked upon as subordinates. Human resource –Leadership relies on personal expertise and skill in motivating and manipulating people as their source of authority. Principals must figure out what psychological buttons to push to get their need met. Bonding- Leadership relies heavily on moral values as their source of authority. Ideas, values, and beliefs compel people to work.. Page 132 & 133

9. The Stages of Leadership Transactional Leadership – focuses on basic and largely extrinsic motives and needs. Transformative Leadership – focuses on higher-order, more intrinsic, and ultimately moral motives and needs. *James McGregor Burns (1978) described transformational leadership as a process within which “leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation.” Page 134

10. Transactional Leadership Key Concepts Leadership as “bartering” Involvement of followers is calculated Stages of School Improvement Getting started by exchanging human needs and interests that allow satisfaction of independent (leader and follower) but organizationally related objectives. Page 138 & 139

11. Transactional Leadership Leadership as “bartering” Leadership Concepts Contingency theory Exchange theory Path-goal theory Effects Continual performance contingent on parties keeping the bargain. Page 138 &139

12. Transformational Leadership Key Concepts Leadership as “building” Involvement of Followers is Intrinsic Stages of School Improvement Muddling through by approaching human potential, satisfying higher needs, raising expectations of both leader and followers that motivate to higher levels of commitment and performance. Page 138

13. Transformational Leadership Leadership as “Building” Leadership Concepts Empowerment Symbolic Leadership “Charisma” Effects Performance and Commitment are sustained beyond external conditions. Both are beyond expectations in quantity and quality. Page 138 &139

14. Transformational Leadership Key Concepts Leadership as “bonding” Involvement of Followers is moral Stages of School Improvement Seeking a transformative breakthrough by arousing awareness and consciousness that elevate organizational goals and purposes to the level of a shared covenant and that bond together leader and followers in a moral commitment. Page 138

15. Transformational Leadership Leadership as “Bonding” Bonding Leadership Concepts Cultural Leadership Moral Leadership Covenant Effects Performance remains sustained Page 138 &139

16. Transformational Leadership Key Concepts Leadership as “binding” Involvement of followers is moral Stages of School Improvement Promoting self-management by turning improvements into routines so that they become second nature. Ministering to the needs of the school, being of service, guarding the values. Connecting people to an idea structure that guides what to do. Page 138

17. Transformational Leadership Leadership as “Binding” Binding Leadership Concepts Procedures Institutional Leadership Servant Leadership Effects Performance remains sustained Page 138 &139

18. Charismatic Leadership Transformational leadership sounds similar to charisma. Charisma can be defined so that people are born with it. Some principals have it and others don’t. In recent years, the social science literature has moved away from considering charisma as a “divine personality”. There is growing consensus that this charismatic leadership does not exist as concrete and objective but is a perception. Followers attribute charisma to the leader; no leader is thought to be charismatic by everyone. Page 137

19. Charismatic Leadership Does it sound like anyone we know?

20. Washington & Jefferson

21. Patton

22. Jordan

23. King Jr.

24. Koresh & Jones

25. Manson

26. Hitler

27. Behavioral Dimensions of Charisma Followers are more likely to attribute charisma to leaders who: advocate a vision that challenges the status quo but still is close enough to be accepted by followers demonstrate convincingly that they are willing to take personal risks, incur high costs, and even make self-sacrifices to achieve their vision. act in unconventional ways in reaching the vision respond to existing dissatisfaction are able to communicate confidence in themselves Page 140

28. Behavioral Dimensions of Charismatic Leadership Stage 1 – sensing leadership opportunities and formulating a vision Stage 2 – communicating the vision in a fashion that makes it clear that the current situation is unacceptable and the proposed vision is an attractive alternative. Stage 3 – building trust by demonstrating sincerity and commitment Stage 4 – demonstrating the means to achieve the vision through modeling and empowering others. Page 140

29. Behavioral Dimensions of Charismatic Leadership The “charismatic leaders,” “bonding leaders,” and “transformative leaders” share one common quality: the ability to respond to the needs of followers. They are able to help others reach higher levels of need fulfillment, to extract more meaning from their work lives, and to see that what they are doing is something special and significant. Page 141

30. Bonding & Binding Leadership Works Because they are aligned with a realistic view of how schools actually work; thus their practices are practical. Because they are based on a theory of human rationality that enhances both individual and organizational intelligence and performance. Because they respond to higher—order psychological and spiritual needs that lead to extraordinary commitment, performance, and satisfaction. Page 141

31. Idea-Based Leadership Leadership and followership become very close Everyone takes being a guardian of the the school’s value and covenant. Both followers and leaders are attracted and compelled by the same ideas, values and commitments. The leader is neither boss nor messiah but administrator. Page 142 & 143

32. SUMMARY Leadership Strategies *Bartering *Building *Bonding *Binding

33. SUMMARY CONTINUED Sources of Authority *Traditional *Human Resource *Bonding

34. SUMMARY CONTINUED Stages of Leadership *Transactional *Transformative

35. SUMMARY CONTINUED Charismatic Leadership *Sounds similar to Transformational *Growing consensus that it does not really exist *No one leader is charismatic to all

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