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Chapter 6 Conditioning and Learning. Learning: Some Key Terms. Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Often due to ________ &___________. Does NOT include temporary changes due to disease, injury, maturation, injury, or drugs, since these do NOT qualify as learning

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learning some key terms
Learning: Some Key Terms
  • Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Often due to ________ &___________.
    • Does NOT include temporary changes due to disease, injury, maturation, injury, or drugs, since these do NOT qualify as learning
  • Reinforcement: Any event that increases the probability that a response will recur
classical conditioning and ivan pavlov
Classical Conditioning and Ivan Pavlov
  • Russian physiologist who initially was studying digestion
  • Used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder
  • Also known as Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning
  • Reflex: Automatic, nonlearned innate response e.g., an eyeblink

Figure 6.1

FIGURE 6.1 In classical conditioning, a stimulus that does not produce a response is paired with a stimulus that does elicit a response. After many such pairings, the stimulus that previously had no effect begins to produce a response. In the example shown, a horn precedes a puff of air to the eye. Eventually, the horn alone will produce an eye-blink. In operant conditioning, a response that is followed by a reinforcing consequence becomes more likely to occur on future occasions. In the example shown, a dog learns to sit up when it hears a whistle.


Figure 6.3

FIGURE 6.3 The classical conditioning procedure.

principles of classical conditioning
Principles of Classical Conditioning
  • Expectancy: Expectation about how events are interconnected
  • Acquisition: Training period when a response is reinforced
  • Extinction: Weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement
  • Spontaneous Recovery: Reappearance of a learned response following apparent extinction
principles of classical conditioning cont d
Principles of Classical Conditioning (cont\'d)
  • Stimulus Generalization: A tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus (e.g., responding to a buzzer or a hammer banging when the conditioning stimulus was a bell)
  • Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to various stimuli (e.g., Paula will respond differently to various bells (alarms, school, timer))
classical conditioning in humans
Classical Conditioning in Humans
  • Conditioned Emotional Response: Learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus
  • Phobia: Intense, unrealistic, irrational fear of a specific situation or object (e.g., arachnophobia; fear of spiders; see the movie!)
  • Taste Aversions
operant conditioning instrumental learning
Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning)
  • Definition: Learning based on the consequences of responding; we associate responses with their consequences
  • Operant Reinforcer: Any event that follows a response and increases its likelihood of recurring
timing of reinforcement
Timing of Reinforcement
  • Operant reinforcement most effective when given immediately after a correct response
  • Shaping: Molding responses gradually to a desired pattern
  • Successive Approximations: Ever-closer matches
  • Extinction: When learned responses that are NOT reinforced gradually fade away
more operant conditioning terms
More Operant Conditioning Terms
  • Positive Reinforcement: When a response is followed by a reward or other positive event
  • Negative Reinforcement: When a response is followed by the removal of an unpleasant event (e.g., the bells in Fannie’s car stop when she puts the seatbelt on) or by an end to discomfort
  • Primary Reinforcer: Nonlearned and natural; satisfies biological needs (e.g., food, water, sex)
  • Secondary Reinforcer: Learned reinforcer (e.g., money, grades, approval)
  • Punishment: Any event that follows a response and decreases the likelihood of it recurring (e.g., a spanking)
  • Response Cost: Removal of a positive reinforcer after a response is made
partial reinforcement
Partial Reinforcement
  • Definition: Reinforcers do NOT follow every response
  • Schedules of Reinforcement: Plans for determining which responses will be reinforced
  • Continuous Reinforcement: A reinforcer follows every correct response
  • PartialReinforcement Effect: Responses acquired with partial reinforcement are very resistant to extinction
schedules of partial reinforcement
Schedules of Partial Reinforcement
  • Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR): A set number of correct responses must be made to obtain a reinforcer.
  • Variable Ratio Schedule (VR): Varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer.
  • Fixed Interval Schedule (FI): The first correct response made after a certain amount of time has elapsed is reinforced; produces moderate response rates.
  • Variable Interval Schedule (VI): Reinforcement is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time
stimulus control
Stimulus Control
  • Stimulithat consistently precede a rewarded response tend to influence when and where the response will occur
  • Operant Stimulus Generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcement. How can this lead to superstitions?
  • Operant Stimulus Discrimination: Occurs when one learns to differentiate between the stimuli that signal either an upcoming reward or a nonreward condition
  • Punisher: Any consequence that reduces the frequency of a target behavior
  • Definition of Punishment
  • Most effective when:
  • Undesirable side effects of punishment:
cognitive learning
Cognitive Learning
  • Latent Learning: Occurs without obvious reinforcement and is not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided
  • Rote Learning: Takes place mechanically, through repetition and memorization, or by learning rules
  • Discovery Learning: Based on insight and understanding
modeling or observational learning albert bandura
Modeling or Observational Learning (Albert Bandura)
  • Model: Someone who serves as an example in observational learning
  • Occurs by watching and imitating actions of another person or by noting consequences of a person’s actions
    • Occurs before direct practice is allowed