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Chapter 10: Tides. Fig. 10-6. Fig. 10-7. Tide-producing forces. Gravity and motions among Earth, Moon, and Sun. Fig. 10-2. Centripetal force “tethers” Moon to Earth Directed away from barycenter. Fig. 10-4 a,b. Resultant tidal forces. Gravitational force, Earth and Moon

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chapter 10 tides
Chapter 10: Tides

Fig. 10-6

Fig. 10-7

tide producing forces
Tide-producing forces
  • Gravity and

motions among

Earth, Moon,

and Sun

Fig. 10-2

slide3
Centripetal force “tethers” Moon to Earth
    • Directed away from barycenter

Fig. 10-4 a,b

resultant tidal forces
Resultant tidal forces
  • Gravitational force, Earth and Moon
  • Centripetal force, Earth and Moon
  • Resultant force moves ocean water horizontally

Fig. 10-6

Fig. 10-7

tidal bulges
Tidal bulges
  • Two equal and opposite tidal bulges
  • Earth rotates beneath tidal bulges
  • Two high tides
  • Two low tides
  • Per day

Fig. 10-8

complications to simplest equilibrium theory
Complications to simplest equilibrium theory
  • Oceans do not cover entire Earth
  • Oceans do not have uniform depth
  • Friction between ocean and seafloor
  • Continents
  • Moon not always in same place with respect to Earth
  • Lunar day longer than solar day
lunar day
Lunar day
  • Moon revolves around Earth
  • Earth has to “catch up” with Moon to reach same position

Fig. 10-9

slide8
Time between successive high tides shifts day after day
  • Moon rises later each successive night
solar tidal bulges
Solar tidal bulges
  • Tide-producing force of Sun less than half of Moon’s
  • Sun much farther away
month tidal cycle
Month tidal cycle
  • Spring tides
    • New Moon, Full Moon
    • Earth, Moon, Sun syzygy
    • Higher than usual high tides

Fig. 10-12

slide11
Neap tide
    • First Quarter, Last Quarter
    • Earth, Moon, Sun quadrature
    • Lower than usual high tide

Fig. 10-12

declination of sun and moon
Declination of Sun and Moon
  • Orientation of Sun, Moon to Earth’s equator
    • Sun 23.5o N and S, yearly cycle
    • Moon 28.5o N and S, monthly cycle
  • Unequal tides
    • Successive tides different tidal range
elliptical orbits
Elliptical orbits
  • Perigee
    • Lunar tidal force greater
    • Higher high tides
  • Apogee
    • Lunar tidal force lesser
    • Lower high tides

Fig. 10-16

dynamic theory of tides
Dynamic theory of tides
  • Tide shallow-water wave
    • Speed varies with depth
    • Lags behind Earth’s rotation
  • Rotary flow in open ocean basins
    • Amphidromic point
    • Cotidal lines
rotary flow
Rotary flow
  • Crest (high tide) rotates
  • Counterclockwise in Northern Hemisphere
  • Clockwise in Southern Hemisphere
tidal patterns
Tidal patterns
  • Diurnal
    • One high, one low tide per lunar day
    • Period of tidal cycle 24 hours 50 minutes
  • Semidiurnal
    • Two high, two low tides per lunar day
    • Period 12 hours 25 minutes
    • Equal range
slide18
Mixed
    • Two high, two low tides per lunar day
    • Unequal range
  • Most tides are mixed
standing waves
Standing waves
  • Forced standing wave caused by tides
  • Free-standing waves caused by strong winds or seismic disturbances

Fig. 10-22

slide20
Node maximum horizontal flow
  • Antinode maximum vertical flow

Fig. 10-23

bay of fundy
Bay of Fundy
  • Largest tidal range (spring tide max 17 m)
  • Shape of basin
  • Oscillation period close to tidal period
  • Shoals and narrows to north
  • Basin oriented toward right (Coriolis moves water toward right)

Fig. 10-24

tidal bores
Tidal bores
  • Wave created by tide rushes upstream
  • Large tidal range
  • Low-lying coastal river
  • Max 8 m high

Fig. 10A

end of chapter 10 tides
End of Chapter 10: Tides

Fig. 10-6

Fig. 10-7

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