Chapter 10 tides
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Chapter 10: Tides. Fig. 10-6. Fig. 10-7. Tide-producing forces. Gravity and motions among Earth, Moon, and Sun. Fig. 10-2. Centripetal force “tethers” Moon to Earth Directed away from barycenter. Fig. 10-4 a,b. Resultant tidal forces. Gravitational force, Earth and Moon

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Chapter 10 tides l.jpg
Chapter 10: Tides

Fig. 10-6

Fig. 10-7


Tide producing forces l.jpg
Tide-producing forces

  • Gravity and

    motions among

    Earth, Moon,

    and Sun

Fig. 10-2


Slide3 l.jpg

Fig. 10-4 a,b


Resultant tidal forces l.jpg
Resultant tidal forces

  • Gravitational force, Earth and Moon

  • Centripetal force, Earth and Moon

  • Resultant force moves ocean water horizontally

Fig. 10-6

Fig. 10-7


Tidal bulges l.jpg
Tidal bulges

  • Two equal and opposite tidal bulges

  • Earth rotates beneath tidal bulges

  • Two high tides

  • Two low tides

  • Per day

Fig. 10-8


Complications to simplest equilibrium theory l.jpg
Complications to simplest equilibrium theory

  • Oceans do not cover entire Earth

  • Oceans do not have uniform depth

  • Friction between ocean and seafloor

  • Continents

  • Moon not always in same place with respect to Earth

  • Lunar day longer than solar day


Lunar day l.jpg
Lunar day

  • Moon revolves around Earth

  • Earth has to “catch up” with Moon to reach same position

Fig. 10-9


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Solar tidal bulges l.jpg
Solar tidal bulges

  • Tide-producing force of Sun less than half of Moon’s

  • Sun much farther away


Month tidal cycle l.jpg
Month tidal cycle

  • Spring tides

    • New Moon, Full Moon

    • Earth, Moon, Sun syzygy

    • Higher than usual high tides

Fig. 10-12


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  • Neap tide

    • First Quarter, Last Quarter

    • Earth, Moon, Sun quadrature

    • Lower than usual high tide

Fig. 10-12


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Declination of Sun and Moon

  • Orientation of Sun, Moon to Earth’s equator

    • Sun 23.5o N and S, yearly cycle

    • Moon 28.5o N and S, monthly cycle

  • Unequal tides

    • Successive tides different tidal range



Elliptical orbits l.jpg
Elliptical orbits

  • Perigee

    • Lunar tidal force greater

    • Higher high tides

  • Apogee

    • Lunar tidal force lesser

    • Lower high tides

Fig. 10-16


Dynamic theory of tides l.jpg
Dynamic theory of tides

  • Tide shallow-water wave

    • Speed varies with depth

    • Lags behind Earth’s rotation

  • Rotary flow in open ocean basins

    • Amphidromic point

    • Cotidal lines


Rotary flow l.jpg
Rotary flow

  • Crest (high tide) rotates

  • Counterclockwise in Northern Hemisphere

  • Clockwise in Southern Hemisphere


Tidal patterns l.jpg
Tidal patterns

  • Diurnal

    • One high, one low tide per lunar day

    • Period of tidal cycle 24 hours 50 minutes

  • Semidiurnal

    • Two high, two low tides per lunar day

    • Period 12 hours 25 minutes

    • Equal range


Slide18 l.jpg

  • Mixed

    • Two high, two low tides per lunar day

    • Unequal range

  • Most tides are mixed


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Standing waves

  • Forced standing wave caused by tides

  • Free-standing waves caused by strong winds or seismic disturbances

Fig. 10-22


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Fig. 10-23


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Bay of Fundy

  • Largest tidal range (spring tide max 17 m)

  • Shape of basin

  • Oscillation period close to tidal period

  • Shoals and narrows to north

  • Basin oriented toward right (Coriolis moves water toward right)

Fig. 10-24


Tidal bores l.jpg
Tidal bores

  • Wave created by tide rushes upstream

  • Large tidal range

  • Low-lying coastal river

  • Max 8 m high

Fig. 10A


End of chapter 10 tides l.jpg
End of Chapter 10: Tides

Fig. 10-6

Fig. 10-7


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