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AIM OF THIS PRESENTATION. Introduce the important components of the Autoimmune Diseases. Demonstrate what happens when things go wrong & the body turns against itself (Autoimmunity) Provide examples of Autoimmune Disease Such as Graves ,Rheumatology. . OVER VIEW OF THE PRESENTATION.

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AIM OF THIS PRESENTATION

  • Introduce the important components of the Autoimmune Diseases.

  • Demonstrate what happens when things go wrong & the body turns against itself (Autoimmunity)

  • Provide examples of Autoimmune Disease Such as Graves ,Rheumatology.


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OVER VIEW OF THE PRESENTATION

TOPICS COVERED

  • AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

  • CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEAS

  • CAUSES

  • RISK FACTORS

  • DIAGNOSIS

  • TREATMENT

  • GRAVES DIESEASE

  • RHEUMATOID DISEASE

  • RECENT RESEARCH


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AUTOIMMUNITY

Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues.


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AUTO IMMUNE DISEASES

Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the body's immune system reacts against some of its own tissue and produces antibodies to attack itself.


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AUTO ANTIBODIES

Auto antibodies are the antibodies that attack its own cells, tissues, and/or organs. This causes inflammation and damage and it leads to autoimmune disorders.


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PROMINENT EXAMPLES

  • COELIAC DISEASE

  • DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 1 (IDDM),

  • SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE),

  • SJÖGREN'S SYNDROME

  • CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME

  • HASHIMOTO'S THYROIDITIS

  • GRAVES' DISEASE

  • RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA).


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HISTORY

Paul Ehrlich, at the beginning of the twentieth century, proposed the concept of horror autotoxicus, where in a 'normal' body does not mount an immune response against its own tissues. Thus, any autoimmune response was perceived to be abnormal and postulated to be connected with human disease.


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DESCRIPTION

The immune system is a network of organs, cells and molecules that work together to defend the body against attacks by foreign (not of the body) invaders such as germs, bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi.


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In general terms, when antibodies are directed against the body's own cells, or when B and T cells attack and destroy their own body's cells and not foreign antigens, an autoimmune disorder can result


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The autoimmune process can have varied consequences. For example,

  • slow destruction of a particular type of cell or tissue.

  • stimulation of an organ into excessive growth or interference in its functions.


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  • THYROID example,

  • PANCREAS

  • ADRENAL GLANDS

  • RED BLOOD CELLS

  • CONNECTIVE TISSUES


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CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE example,

Autoimmune disorders fall into two general types:

  • Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

  • Localized Autoimmune Diseases


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Systemic Autoimmune Diseases example,

Non-organ-specific or Systemic Autoimmune Diseases are those that damage many organs .

For example,

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA),

  • Sjogren's syndrome

  • Lupus Erythematosus

  • Scleroderma,


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Localized Autoimmune Diseases example,

Organ-specific or Localized Autoimmune Diseases are those where only a single organ or tissue is directly damaged by the autoimmune process .For example

  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus,

  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis,

  • Celiac disease,

  • Crohn's disease.


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In some cases, a person may have more than one autoimmune disease; for example, persons with Addison's disease often have type 1 diabetes, while persons with sclerosing cholangitis often have ulcerative colitis.


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In some cases, the antibodies may not be directed at a specific tissue or organ; for example, antiphospholipid antibodies can react with clotting proteins in the blood, leading to formation of blood clots within the blood vessels (thrombosis).


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AUTOIMMUNITY LEVEL specific tissue or organ; for example, antiphospholipid antibodies can react with clotting proteins in the blood, leading to formation of blood clots within the blood vessels (thrombosis).

High level of autoimmunity is unhealthy, a low level of autoimmunity may actually be beneficial.


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CAUSES specific tissue or organ; for example, antiphospholipid antibodies can react with clotting proteins in the blood, leading to formation of blood clots within the blood vessels (thrombosis).

The cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown, but it appears that there is an inherited predisposition to develop autoimmune disease in many cases.


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In a few types of autoimmune disease (such as rheumatic fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.


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RISK FACTORS: fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

  • Genetic factor ,

  • Environmental toxins,

  • Gender,

  • Heredity,

  • viruses,

  • Drugs,

  • Stress,

  • poor diet,

  • lack of exercise,

  • lack of sleep,

  • abuse of alcohol and use of tobacco.


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Genetic Factors: fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

Three main sets of genes are suspected in many autoimmune diseases. These genes are related to:

  • Immunoglobulins

  • T-cell receptors

  • The major histocompatibility complexes(MHC).


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Gender: fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

A person's sex also seems to have a major role in the development of autoimmunity.

  • most of the known autoimmune diseases tend to show a female preponderance.

  • Ankylosing spondylitis,male preponderance

  • Crohn's disease, males and females


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SYMPTOMS OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES. fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

The symptoms and signs vary by specific autoimmune disease. The common symptoms are:

  • Fatigue

  • Affect on Weight

  • Muscle pain

  • Insomnia(not able to sleep)

  • Inflammation


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DIAGNOSIS OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES. fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

  • Autoantibody blood tests

  • blood tests to measure inflammation and organ function

  • clinical presentation

  • X-rays


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TREATMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

  • Immunosuppressant drugs

    - to inhibit the activity of the immune system.

  • Helminthic therapy

    -inoculation of the patient with specific parasitic intestinal nematodes

  • Radiation of the lymph nodes and plasmapheresis

  • Treatment for the deficiency

  • for example, insulin injections in the case of diabetes.


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Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases fever), a bacteria or virus triggers an immune response, and the antibodies or T-cells attack normal cells because they have some part of their structure that resembles a part of the structure of the infecting microorganism.

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs

    -to reduce inflammation and pain.

  • Corticosteroids

    - to reduce inflammation. They are sometimes used to treat an acute flare of symptoms.

  • Pain-killing medication

    - such as paracetamol and codeine.


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