A Closer Look at Urban Planning Evolution of the concept of urban planning From elite master plans (city beautiful) to public participation framework From physical layouts to guides for action (static pattern to dynamic process)
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From elite master plans (city beautiful) to public participation framework
From physical layouts to guides for action (static pattern to dynamic process)
This view of the evolution may be overly optimistic: both elitism and obsession on physical elements remain quite prevalent
Edward Bassett’s 1938 book The Master Plan envisioned the urban plan as a flexible tool used by City Planning Commission including elements such as:
sites for public buildings
routes for public utilities
zoning districtsKaiser and Godschalk
By 1940s Robert Walker argued that planning should be part of city government and his view catches on in the 1950s
Section 701 of Federal Housing Act of 1954 req. long-range general plan in order for a city to qualify for federal grants for federal housing, urban renewal, etc.
Character of most city plans is originally long-term/physical
Purpose of the plan 1950s & 60s (as envisioned by T.J. Kent and F. Stuart Chapin):
Promote safety & welfare
Promote public interest
Inject long-range consideration into decision making
Benefit from various types of technical knowledgeLandmarks in Planning
Land of city government and his view catches on in the 1950suse design plan: physical and long-term, carries on the earlier traditions of planning, achieving much the same goals
Land classification plan(a.k.a. development priorities mapping): larger scale & longer range tool, integrates a wide range of concerns to identify better and worse locations for future development with a conservation focus (Ian McHarg’s Design With Nature is an inspiration)
Verbal policy plan (a.k.a. policy framework plan): a written document that focuses on long-term policy issues rather than patterns. For example, it may describe how to interpret zoning regs. and how to handle the edges between different kinds of zones
Development management plan: course of action to allow govt. control of development over a fairly short time frame, merges a plan for development with guidelines for implementationRecent Developments in Planning
Land Classification Map of city government and his view catches on in the 1950s
New Hanover County, North Carolina
What is important about Edwards aquifer?
Sugar House Community, Salt Lake City: zoning map of city government and his view catches on in the 1950s
Note some unconventional zoning categories
1.Establish a County-Wide Farmland Mitigation Program.
This program will require that whenever someone converts an acre of farmland , he or she will have to mitigate that loss by securing an acre of land in specified areas (Farm Priority Zones). This can be accomplished either by acquiring a long-term easement on farmland or by paying a fee to a mitigation fund. The program will help maintain critical masses of productive farming areas under long-term protection, allow farmers to realize some of the value of their land without having to divide it, and discourage development on farm lands.
2.Create Farm Priority Zones to Encourage Farmers to Continue Farming.
Dane County should establish Farm Priority Zones where farming operations are protected. The Farm Priority zones should be large enough to protect substantial tracts of agricultural land. These zones would also serve as the target areas for other benefits intended to help farm families, such as the voluntary sale of agricultural easements under the Farmland Mitigation Program, priority for county funding and technical assistance and buffer strips from other development. Establishment of these zones will reduce land use conflicts with agricultural activities and secure farmland. Residential development will be limited (except residences directly related to the farm). These Farm Priority Zones will be established in two ways: i) through an official designation in the zoning ordinance, which would provide the maximum protection to agricultural activities; and ii) by delineating suitable areas where the incentives and protections described would be provided if a threshold number of farmers voluntarily agreed to participate in the program.
Excerpt from Sugar House Community (Salt Lake City) of city government and his view catches on in the 1950s
Note evidence for new ways of thinking about planning