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Sound Waves From the Northern Lights. Jada Maxwell. Photo courtesy of Bjorn Jorgensen, 18 January 2005, near Tromsø, Norway http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images2005/17jan05/Jorgensen1.jpg.

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Sound waves from the northern lights l.jpg
Sound Waves From the Northern Lights

Jada Maxwell

Photo courtesy of Bjorn Jorgensen, 18 January 2005, near Tromsø, Norway

http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images2005/17jan05/Jorgensen1.jpg


Slide2 l.jpg
“Synergy means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the behavior of their parts taken separately.”- Buckminster Fuller


Can magnetic waves in the aurorae transform into sound waves l.jpg
Can magnetic waves in the aurorae transform into sound waves?

  • What creates the aurora?

  • Sound waves from the aurora

  • Wave transformation on the Sun

  • Beginning to answer my question



Chain of events l.jpg

The aurora is created by a chain of events, beginning with energy from the sun.

Chain of Events

Image courtesy of Tom Michalikhttp://faculty.rmwc.edu/tmichalik/solarwind.htm


The magnetosphere l.jpg
The Magnetosphere energy from the sun.

Image courtesy of Minnesota Technologhttp://technolog.it.umn.edu/technolog/novdec97/cover.htm


Coronal mass ejection cme l.jpg
Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) energy from the sun.

Illustration by Steele Hill, courtesy of NASAhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/localinfo/steele.html


South north magnetic orientation of cme l.jpg
South-North Magnetic Orientation energy from the sun.of CME


North south magnetic orientation of cme l.jpg
North-South Magnetic Orientation energy from the sun.of CME


Magnetic reconnection on dayside of earth l.jpg
Magnetic Reconnection energy from the sun.on Dayside of Earth



Magnetotail is compressed l.jpg
Magnetotail is Compressed energy from the sun.



Particles spiral down field lines l.jpg
Particles Spiral Down Field Lines energy from the sun.

Image: Fundamentals of Physics, 2005


Particles 2 l.jpg
Particles 2 energy from the sun.

Particles Spiral Down Field Lines

  • Collide with atomic and molecular oxygen and nitrogen

  • Emit energy as light


This creates the aurorae l.jpg
This Creates the Aurorae energy from the sun.

  • Northern Lights = Aurora Borealis

  • Southern Lights = Aurora Australis

Image courtesy of Shawn Malonehttp://www.lakesuperiorphoto.com


Nearly mirror images l.jpg
Nearly Mirror Images energy from the sun.

Aurora Borealis

Aurora Australis

Images courtesy of NOAAhttp://sec.noaa.gov/pmap/


Can we hear the aurorae l.jpg
Can we hear the aurorae? energy from the sun.

  • Anecdotal evidence of auroral sounds

  • hissing, popping, crackling, swooshing

  • corresponds with motions of light


6 minutes l.jpg
6 minutes energy from the sun.

  • Sound would take at least 6 minutes to travel from the aurora to the ground

  • No recordings of audible aurorae


Explanations of audible sounds l.jpg
Explanations of Audible Sounds energy from the sun.

  • Psychological

  • Freezing Breath

  • “Brush discharge”


Evidence of infrasound from aurorae l.jpg
Evidence of energy from the sun.Infrasoundfrom Aurorae

  • Humans can hear between 20 and 20,000 Hertz (Hz)

  • Infrasound is below 20 Hz

  • Currently being investigated

  • Gas expansion


The sun creates sound waves l.jpg
The Sun Creates Sound Waves energy from the sun.





Types of magnetic waves l.jpg
Types of Magnetic Waves energy from the sun.

  • Alfvén waves (s-mode)

  • Magnetosonic waves (p-mode)

Images courtesy of Georgia State Universityhttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/tralon.html

BBC animations


My question l.jpg
My Question energy from the sun.

Can magnetic waves in the aurorae transform into sound waves?


Magnetic waves l.jpg
Magnetic Waves energy from the sun.

Earth


Transform into sound waves l.jpg
Transform into Sound Waves energy from the sun.

Earth


Finding beta l.jpg
Finding Beta energy from the sun.

Gas (atmospheric) Pressure

Beta = β =

Magnetic Field Pressure

β = 1 ?


Resonance l.jpg
Resonance energy from the sun.

  • All material has a frequency that it vibrates at

  • Matching the frequency allows the material to absorb energy

  • Singing wine glass


Resonance in the aurora l.jpg
Resonance in the Aurora energy from the sun.

When β = 1,

  • Energy from magnetic waves can be transferred to the atmosphere

  • Found the right frequency


When beta 1 l.jpg
When Beta = 1 energy from the sun.

β= 1 ?

  • At 120 km

  • Near bottom of aurorae


More questions to investigate l.jpg
More Questions to Investigate energy from the sun.

  • How does β vary?

  • Compare gas expansion theory to wave transformation

  • How much might Alfvén and magnetosonic waves each contribute to this effect?

  • Which is more likely to transform?


Thanks to l.jpg
Thanks to: energy from the sun.

  • Dr. E.J. Zita for her guidance and helpful discussions

  • Beth Stinson for instruction in PowerPoint


Image sources l.jpg
Image Sources: energy from the sun.

  • NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration)http://sec.noaa.gov/pmap/

  • NASAhttp://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/localinfo/steele.html

  • SpaceWeather.com http://www.spaceweather.com/aurora/images2005.htm

  • Shawn Malonehttp://www.lakesuperiorphoto.com

  • Tom Michalikhttp://faculty.rmwc.edu/tmichalik/solarwind.htm

  • Minnesota Technologhttp://technolog.it.umn.edu/technolog/novdec97/cover.htm

  • Fundamentals of Physics, Halliday/Resnick/Walker, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, p 746


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