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Sentinel Bird Surveillance for West Nile virus. Nicholas Komar, Sc.D. CDC-Arbovirus Diseases Branch Fort Collins, CO. West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle. Mosquito vector. Incidental infections. WNV. WNV. Incidental infections. Bird reservoir hosts. WNV Surveillance Modalities.

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Sentinel bird surveillance for west nile virus l.jpg

Sentinel Bird Surveillance for West Nile virus

Nicholas Komar, Sc.D.

CDC-Arbovirus Diseases Branch

Fort Collins, CO


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West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle

Mosquito vector

Incidental infections

WNV

WNV

Incidental infections

Bird

reservoir hosts


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WNV Surveillance Modalities

  • Dead birds (especially crows)

  • Mosquitoes

  • Live wild bird sentinels

  • Live captive sentinels (e.g. chickens)

  • Veterinary surveillance

  • Human surveillance


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The success of sentinel bird surveillance depends solely on the effort expended by surveillance workers.


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WNV Surveillance Totals, 2000 the effort expended by surveillance workers.Reported to CDC thru 1/25/01

* Confirmed & Probable cases; ** includes 7 from NYC


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WNV seroprevalence, cumulative the effort expended by surveillance workers.

% Pos for Neut Ab

Species NE Queens ’99 S.I.’00 Chicken 63 6

Pigeon 27 54

Mallard 6 8

House sparrow 60 9

Cardinal -- 69

Catbird -- 33

Dog 11 --

Horse 6 --

Human 2.6 0.5


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Can Chickens be used as Sentinels? the effort expended by surveillance workers.

  • Highly susceptible (for development of antibodies)

  • Resistant to mortality

  • Non-infectious to eachother

  • Non-infectious to handlers

  • Non-infectious to mosquitoes


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Pathogenicity of WNV in Chickens the effort expended by surveillance workers.

USDA-APHIS-NVSL:

Senne, Pederson, Hutto, Taylor, Schmitt, Panigrahy

Avian Dis 44:642-649, 2000


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Mean Days Mean Peak the effort expended by surveillance workers.Species n Infectious* Viremia ** ci***Blue jay 2 4 12.3 2.4Common grackle 6 3 9.4 1.0House sparrow 6 3 8.9 0.9House finch 2 6 8.8 0.8American robin 2 3 8.5 0.6Red-wing. blackbird 3 3 8.1 0.5Mallard 2 3 6.7 0.3European starling 6 2 6.0 0.1Canada goose 3 0 4.7 0American coot 1 0 4.6 0Rock dove 6 0 4.3 0Chicken 16 0 3.2 0Ring-neck Pheasant 3 0 2.7 0 * Infectious viremia = log 5 or greater per ml serum; ** log pfu/ml serum *** ci = susceptibility * mean infectiousness * days infectious

Do chickens develop WN viremia?


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Features of a Sentinel Chicken Program the effort expended by surveillance workers.

  • Chicken flocks established at known transmission foci

  • Birds are bled periodically

  • Serum samples sent immediately for testing

  • HI or M-ELISA test used for screen

  • N test for confirmation (3 days)

  • Positives replaced for accurate monitoring


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New York City’s Sentinel Chicken Program the effort expended by surveillance workers.

  • Details provided by Dr. Bryan Cherry

  • 13 coops (7 birds each) at live poultry markets in 4 boroughs, plus one flock of 15 in Staten Island

  • 7 of 106 seroconverted (tested at Cornell)

  • One dead chicken tested WNV+ by NYSDOH


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New York State’s Sentinel Chicken Program the effort expended by surveillance workers.

  • Details from Dr. Millie Eidson, Dr. Greg Ebel

  • Flocks placed in 4 counties: Suffolk (103 birds), Rockland (24), Westchester (70), Onondaga (47)

  • Sera screened by G-ELISA, confirmed by PRNT

  • 1 of 244 seroconverted 4 Aug in Westchester


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New Jersey’s Sentinel Chicken Program the effort expended by surveillance workers.

  • Details provided by Cheryl Farello, Dr. Bob Eisner

  • All 21 counties maintained 1-2 flocks of 3 birds each (more flocks in Ocean, Monmouth)

  • 4 of 102 seroconverted

  • Sera screened by HI, confirmed by PRNT at USDA-APHIS-VS-NVSL

  • Dates of seroconversions are 27-29 Sep from Sussex, Middlesex, Morris, Essex counties


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Features of a Sentinel Wild Bird Program the effort expended by surveillance workers.

  • Sampling sites established at known transmission foci

  • Wild birds are captured periodically and banded

  • Serum samples sent immediately for testing. Virus isolation may be attempted.

  • HI, ELISA or PRNT used for screen

  • PRNT for confirmation (3 days)

  • Hatch-year birds most useful, or recaptured adults, of targeted species


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Summary of Wild Bird Surveillance, NYC the effort expended by surveillance workers.

Species n No. POS %

House Sparrow 440 3 0.7%

Other 150 1 0.7%

Line list:Jul 21 House Sparrow Queens-Floral ParkAug 2 Mockingbird Brooklyn-Sunset ParkAug 9 House Sparrow Bronx-Orchard BeachAug 21House Sparrow Queens-Forest Park


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First WNV Surveillance Events, 2000 the effort expended by surveillance workers.

Sentinel wild bird, Suffolk

Horse,

Richmond

Sentinel

Chicken,

Westchester

Oc. japonicus,

Westchester;

Cx. pipiens,

Richmond

Viral activity (inferred)

Human,

Richmond

Crow,

Suffolk

Crow,

Richmond

Mar

Jun

Jul

Aug

Apr

Sep

Oct


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Time’s Up! the effort expended by surveillance workers.


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Does a dead bird represent local WNV transmission? the effort expended by surveillance workers.


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Culex sp the effort expended by surveillance workers.. WN virus infectionsJuly 15-24, 2000

* Minimum Infection Ratio = # infected/1000 tested


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House Sparrow Seropositives the effort expended by surveillance workers.July 15-24, 2000


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