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PSY 111AR Introduction to Psychology. Introduction and syllabus http://www.campus.houghton.edu/depts/psychology /intros01.htm Questions and discussion What is psychology? Where does it fit? Why do psychologists believe as they do?. What isn’t psychology. “Why is there rain?”

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PSY 111AR Introduction to Psychology

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Psy 111ar introduction to psychology l.jpg

PSY 111AR Introduction to Psychology

  • Introduction and syllabus

    • http://www.campus.houghton.edu/depts/psychology /intros01.htm

  • Questions and discussion

  • What is psychology?

  • Where does it fit?

  • Why do psychologists believe as they do?


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What isn’t psychology

  • “Why is there rain?”

  • “How do bumblebees fly, anyway?”

  • “Is Kant’s categorical imperative an adequate basis for framing moral and ethical judgments in the 21st century?”

  • “Comment va dire, ‘The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain?”


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What is psychology?

  • “Psychology is the field that studies behavior and mental processes.”

  • “Psychology is about life.”

  • “Psychology is about mental illness.”

  • “Psychology is about how we learn.”

  • “Psychology is about relationships…and sex.”


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Fields of Psychology

Academic Psychology

Applied Psychology

Biological Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology

Industrial/ Organizational/ Engineering, Educational, and Health Psychology

Cognitive Psych Memory Psycholinguistics Cross-cultural Psychology

Behavioral Psych Behavioral Analysis Behavior Genetics Behavioral Medicine

Mental health services: Counseling, Clinical, & Community Psych Clinical Social Work Psychiatry


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Where does psychology fit?

  • Historical and philosophical roots

    • Ionian cosmologists and empiricism

    • Socratic philosophers and rationalism

    • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and dualism

    • John Locke (1632-1704) and environmentalism

    • George Berkeley (1685-1753) and rational inference

    • James Mill (1773-1836) and materialism


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Biological roots of psychology

  • Descartes’ hydraulic model

  • Luigi Galvani’s (1737-1798) electrical model

  • Johannes Muller (1801-1858) and experimental physiology

  • Pierre Flourens (1774-1867) and ablation

    • Paul Broca’s (1824-1880) human example

  • Helmholtz


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The emergence of psychology

  • Structuralism and experiment: Wundt

  • Functionalism: William James

  • Psychoanalysis: Freud

  • Behaviorism: Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner

  • Reactions:

    • Cognitive psychology

    • Humanistic psychology


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Psychology’s ongoing issues

  • Stability vs. change

  • Rationality vs. irrationality

  • Nature vs. nurture

  • Perspectives of paradigms


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Critical Thinking in Psychology

  • Cultivate skepticism and humility

  • Analyze the source of claims and beliefs

  • Beware biasing attitudes

    • Intuition

    • Hindsight bias

    • Overconfidence


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Research methods in psychology

  • The scientific method

  • Research strategies

    • Description

    • Correlation

    • Experimentation


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"When I Heard The Learn'dAstronomer” (Walt Whitman)

When I heard the learn'd astronomer,

When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me,

When I was shown the charts and diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them,

When I sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured

With much applause in the lecture-room,


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Whitman, continued...

How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick,

Till rising and gliding out I wander'd off by myself,

In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,

Look'd up in perfect silence at the stars.


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The scientific method

  • 1. Hypothesis formation:

    • Specify the research question or problem

    • Study the research literature

    • Formulate a hypothesis as a possible answer

  • 2. Design the research

    • Generate predictions

    • Select a method


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Scientific method...

  • 3. Conduct the study, collect the data

  • 4. Analyze the data to assess the predictions

  • 5. Explain what the assessment of the predictions says about the truth of the hypothesis. Communicate your study to the scientific community.


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Descriptive research

  • The case study

    • Depth over breadth

    • Risk of overgeneralization

    • May disprove a hypothesis

  • The survey

    • Effects of wording and method

    • Sampling can overcome false consensus

  • Naturalistic observation


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Research methods in psychology

  • Research strategies

    • Description

    • Correlation

    • Experimentation


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Correlation

  • What does correlation mean?

  • Illusory correlation

    • Confirmation bias

    • Spurious correlations

  • Correlation and causation


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Research methods in psychology

  • Research strategies

    • Description

    • Correlation

    • Experimentation


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Experimentation

  • Random selection for representative sample

  • Random assignment for equivalent groups

  • Control or comparison condition

  • Manipulation of independent variable

  • Measurement of dependent variable


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Making explanations

  • The nominal fallacy and circular explanation

  • Operational definition of variables

    • Independent variable: How is it manipulated?

    • Dependent variable: How is it measured?

    • Validity of operational definitions

  • Reliability of measurements

    • Interrater reliability


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Confounding variables: Reaction time to shapes

How could we use counterbalancing to

remove the confounding in this study?


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Two experiments

  • Hypothesis one: Speaking out in class will kill you.

  • Hypothesis two: Men have faster reaction times than women.


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