sign movements predict consonant acquisition in young children with cochlear implants
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Sign Movements Predict Consonant Acquisition in Young Children with Cochlear Implants. ASHA 2007 Boston, Massachusetts. Brenda Seal, Ph.D. Debra Nussbaum, M.S. Kate Belzner, Ph.D/Au.D Student Susanne Scott, M.S. Lincoln Gray, Ph.D. Bettie Waddy-Smith, M.A.

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sign movements predict consonant acquisition in young children with cochlear implants

Sign Movements Predict Consonant Acquisition in Young Children with Cochlear Implants

ASHA 2007

Boston, Massachusetts

Brenda Seal, Ph.D. Debra Nussbaum, M.S.

Kate Belzner, Ph.D/Au.D Student Susanne Scott, M.S.

Lincoln Gray, Ph.D. Bettie Waddy-Smith, M.A.

research question what changes occur in sign and spoken language acquisition following implantation
Research Question:What changes occur in sign and spoken language acquisition following implantation?
english consonants american signs
English Consonants American Signs

Welcome: w ε l k ɚ m

Welcome: θΒRΒL)(

slide4

At 13 months old, 1 month post-implant

11 different sign movements

7 different handshapes

4 different locations

1 consonant

slide5

17 months old, 4 months post implant

2 new sign movements (sum = 13)

1 new handshape (sum = 8)

1 new location (sum = 5)

3 new consonants (sum = 4)

At 21 months old, 8 months post implant

3 new consonants (sum = 7)

voiceless bilabial plosive /p/

voiceless velar plosive /k/

voiceless labiodental fricative /f/

slide6

At 24 months old, 11 months post implant

5 new sign movements (sum = 18)

3 new handshapes (sum = 11)

2 new locations (sum = 7)

3 new consonants (sum = 10)

answering the research questions
Answering the research questions:
  • What changes occur in children’s sign and spoken language acquisition post implantation?
  • Are the changes predictable?
  • Across ages?
  • Across children with secondary disabilities?
  • How can these findings be used for programming?
about the deaf community perspective
About the Deaf Community Perspective
  • There is not one unified deaf community perspective on cochlear implants
  • Attitudes towards cochlear implants are changing
  • Culturally deaf families are beginning to consider implantation for their young children
slide16

KidsWorld Deaf Net

  • Educational Settings
  • The Deaf Community Perspective
  • Communication
  • Methodology
  • Sign Language Use
  • Fitting the Speech
  • Processor
  • Training the Ear to Listen
  • Resources
  • What is a Cochlear Implant?
  • Cochlear Implant Candidacy
  • Factors Influencing
  • Performance
  • The Decision-Making Process
  • Considerations in the
  • Implantation Process
  • What About Insurance?
  • Surgical Considerations

Available in Spanish

slide17
Cochlear Implants and Children: Considerations for Implantation and Educational Planning
slide18

National Training Workshops

Spoken Language and Sign:

Optimizing Learning for Children with Cochlear Implants

what we are learning
What we are learning

Spoken Language and Sign…It does not have to be a competition!

however
However…

For spoken language to develop:

  • Opportunities must be available to develop listening and speaking skills
  • There must be times when sign is not utilized
  • Spoken language must be valued and utilized in the child’s daily environment
the big picture
The Big Picture

We want children to be the most effective language users and communicators possible….

In any way possible!

As early as possible !

slide23
And each child with an implant will vary in their ability to “listen to learn”

The path of “learning to listen” may vary for each child

and

slide24

Fully

Visual

Communicator

Mostly

Visual

Communicator

Mostly

Auditory

Communicator

Fully

Auditory

Communicator

V

VA

Av

A

Receptive Communication Continuum

receptive communication
Receptive Communication
  • VAccesses communication visually via ASL/Signs or visual

clarifiers

  • VAAccesses most information visually via ASL/Signs or visual

clarifiers; obtains some benefit from auditory information

  • VAEqually accesses information via ASL/Signs or Spoken English
  • AvAccesses most information through spoken English, sometimes

needs support via signs or visual clarifiers

  • AAccesses all information through Spoken English
slide26

Fully

Sign

Communicator

Mostly

Sign

Communicator

Mostly

Oral

Communicator

Fully

Oral

Communicator

S

SO

Os

O

Expressive Communication Continuum

Continuum concept: Bettie Waddy-Smith

expressive communication
Expressive Communication
  • SUses Signs/ASL Only
  • SoPrimarily uses Signs/ASL; uses some oral communication
  • SOEqually able to use sign and oral communication
  • Os Primarily uses oral communication; uses signs for clarification
  • O Uses oral communication only
develop an individualized language plan
Develop an “Individualized Language Plan”

To guide:

  • Language use
  • Placement
  • Child and Family Supports
varied roles of sign language
Varied Roles of Sign Language
  • As a transition to oral language
  • As an ongoing clarifier of spoken English.
  • Bilingual development of ASL and Spoken English
slide30
LW
  • Age 4:11 years
  • Adopted at 2:5 years
  • Received CI at age: 2:9 years
  • Consistent use of both ASL and Spoken English in the home (mom is interpreter)
  • Consistent user of CI
  • Developing equal use of both ASL and English
slide31

Fully

Visual

Communicator

Mostly

Visual

Communicator

Mostly

Auditory

Communicator

Fully

Auditory

Communicator

V

VA

Av

A

LW

Receptive Continuum

Expressive Continuum

Fully

Sign

Communicator

Mostly

Sign

Communicator

Mostly

Oral

Communicator

Fully

Oral

Communicator

S

SO

Os

O

jc age 8 3
JC: Age 8.3
  • Cochlear implant activation at: 3.1 years; not all electrodes could be inserted
  • Problems with getting a good map and keeping coil in place
  • Spanish used in the home
  • Family very interested in having Jason become an “auditory communicator
  • Consistently aware of Ling 6 sounds
  • Demonstrates awareness of single words and familiar sentences in a closed set; does not generalize spoken language skills outside of therapy sessions
  • Additional learning disabilities
  • Language development has been slow in both ASL and Spoken English
  • Difficulty in spontaneous and imitative production of new words and phrases
slide33

Fully

Visual

Communicator

Mostly

Visual

Communicator

Mostly

Auditory

Communicator

Fully

Auditory

Communicator

V

VA

Av

A

JC

Receptive Continuum

Expressive Continuum

Fully

Sign

Communicator

Mostly

Sign

Communicator

Mostly

Oral

Communicator

Fully

Oral

Communicator

S

SO

Os

O

m ms of language use
M&Ms of Language Use

Meeting each child at their auditory functioning level

Modifying the “challenge factors”

M onitoring use of sign language

Making links between sign and spoken language

M odeling spoken language

your take away message
Your take away message
  • The demographics of children with cochlear implants varies widely
  • Spoken language and sign language outcomes vary for each child with a cochlear implant
  • Early use of sign language can support the acquisition of spoken language development
  • Continued research is important to support and validate the use of sign language with implanted children
thank you to
Thank you to:
  • James Madison University and Gallaudet University’s Cochlear Implant Education Center for funding the graduate students who worked on this project: English King, Kelly Clingempeel Skubicz, Christi Hess, and Kate Belzner
  • The University of Virginia Cochlear Implant Center (Lori Bobsin) for referrals
  • The families and children involved in our project.
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