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Mental Health 101 for Non-Mental Health Providers

Developed by Faculty and Staff of

the University of Maryland &

Prince Georges County Public School System

Support provided in part from grant 1R01MH71015-01A1 from the National Institute of Mental Health and Project # U45 MC00174 from the Office of Adolescent Health, Maternal, and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services



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Overview

  • Developmental Stages; Review of Normal versus Abnormal Child Development

  • Why Schools?

  • DSM-IV TR

  • Common Mental Health Issues, Review of Symptoms and Practice Skills

  • Putting it All Together-Case Examples

  • Developing Healthy School Environments

  • Q and A


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Mental Health Issue or Not? Red Flags or Not?

  • If a child falls asleep every afternoon in class during the lesson?

  • If a child is late for school often?

  • If a child has frequent suspensions for not following directions in class?

  • If a child has a temper tantrum?

  • If a child is unkempt?


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Lets Visit Ages 6 to 12

Think about your experiences in 3rd Grade

  • Where did you live?

  • Who was your best friend?

  • What games did you like to play?

  • Where did you go to school? Who was your teacher? What expression did he or she have on his or her face in greeting you each day?

  • What game or technology was the newest thing?

  • What was your favorite thing to eat at school?

  • Was there a particular smell that you can remember to your school? (pine sol? Mystery meat?....)


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Developmental Goals (6 to 12)

  • Ages 6 to 12

    • To develop industry

      • Begins to learn the capacity to work

      • Develops imagination and creativity

      • Learns self-care skills

      • Develops a conscience

      • Learns to cooperate, play fairly, and follow social rules


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Normal Difficult Behavior Ages 6 to 12

  • Arguments/Fights with Siblings and/or Peers

  • Curiosity about Body Parts of males and females

  • Testing Limits

  • Limited Attention Span

  • Worries about being accepted

  • Lying

  • Not Taking Responsibility for Behavior


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Cries for Help/More Serious IssuesAges 6-12

  • Excessive Aggressiveness

  • Serious Injury to Self or Others

  • Excessive Fears

  • School Refusal/Phobia

  • Fire Fixation/Setting

  • Frequent Excessive or Extended Emotional Reactions

  • Inability to Focus on Activity even for Five Minutes

  • Patterns of Delinquent behaviors



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Let’s Visit Ages 13-18

Think about your experiences in

10th grade

  • Who was your favorite teacher?

  • Were you dating or not dating?

  • Who was your best friend?

  • How would you have described your parent/caregiver?

  • What did you do for fun?

  • What was the latest and greatest technology?

  • What was your favorite movie, song, or tv show?


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Developmental Goals

  • Developing Identity-the child develops self-identity and the capacity for intimacy

    • Continue mastery of skills

      • Accepting responsibility for behavior

      • Able to develop friendships

      • Able to follow social rules


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Normal Difficult Behavior

  • Moodiness!

  • Less attention and affection towards parents

  • Extremely self involved

  • Peer conflicts

  • Worries and stress about relationships

  • Testing limits

  • Identity Searching/Exploring

  • Substance use experimentation

  • Preoccupation with sex


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Cries for Help- Ages 13-18

  • Sexual promiscuity

  • Suicidal/homicidal ideation

  • Self-mutilation

  • Frequent displays of temper

  • Withdrawal from usual activities

  • Significant change in grades, attitude, hygiene, functioning, sleeping, and/or eating habits

  • Delinquency

  • Excessive fighting and/or aggression (physical/verbal)

  • Inability to cope with day to day activities

  • Lots of somatic complaints (frequent flyers)


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Discussion

  • How do you make the distinction between normal versus abnormal development?

    • How can you tell?



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“Could someone help me with these? I’m late for math class.”


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Schools: The Most Universal Natural Setting

  • Over 55 million youth attend 114,700 schools (K-12) in the U.S.

  • 6.8 million adults work in schools

  • Combining students and staff, approximately 20% of the U.S. population can be found in schools during the work week.


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Overview of Children’s Mental Health Needs

  • Between 20% to 38% of youth in the U.S. have diagnosable mental health disorders

  • Between 9% to 13% of youth have serious disturbances that impact their daily functioning

  • Between one-sixth to one-third of youth with diagnosable disorders receive any treatment

  • Schools provide a natural, universal setting for providing a full continuum of mental health care


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Workforce Issues

  • 15% of teachers leave after year 1

  • 30% of teachers leave within 3 years

  • 40-50% of teachers leave within 5 years

    (Smith and Ingersoll, 2003)


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Opportunities in Schools

  • Can do observations of children in a natural setting

  • Can outreach to youth with internalizing disorders

  • Can provide three tiers of service (universal, selective, and indicated)

  • Can be part of a multidisciplinary team involving school staff, families, and youth


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Activity-Brainstorming

  • What is the mental health issue that you find the most challenging in schools?


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What is the DSM-IV-TR?

  • A reference guide for diagnosing mental health concerns

  • Published by the American Psychiatric Association in May 2000

  • For each Diagnosis provides specific criteria that needs to be met

  • Next update (DSM-V) will be published in 2011 or later


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Depressive Disorders

  • Major Depressive Disorder

  • Dysthymic Disorder

  • Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)


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Depression

Epidemiology

  • 2.5% of children, up to 5% of adolescents

  • Prepubertal-1:1/F:M; adolescence-4:1/F:M

    • Average length of untreated Major Depressive Disorder – 7.2 months

    • Recurrence rates-40% within 2 years

  • Heredity

  • Most important risk factor for the development of depressive illness is having at least one affectively ill parent


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Major Depressive Disorder

I. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same two-week period and represent a change from previous functioning. At least one symptom is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

  • Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by subjective report or based on the observations of others. In children and adolescents, this is often presented as irritability.

  • Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day

  • Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day

  • Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day

  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others)

  • Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day

  • Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt nearly every day

  • Diminished ability to think, concentrate, make a decision nearly every day


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Major Depressive Disorder

II. Symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social or academic functioning

III. Symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (drugs or medication) or a general medical condition

Although there is a different diagnostic category for individuals who suffer from Bereavement, many of the symptoms are the same and counseling techniques may overlap.


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Dysthymic Disorder

  • Major difference between a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthymia is the intensity of the feelings of depression and the duration of symptoms.

  • Dysthymia is an overarching feeling of depression most of the day, more days than not, that does not meet criteria for a Major Depressive Episode.

  • Impairs functioning and lasts for at least one year in children and adolescents, two in adults.


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Depression

Modifications in DSM- IV for children:

  • irritable mood (vs. depressive mood)

  • observed apathy and pervasive boredom (vs. anhedonia)

  • failure to make expected weight gains (rather than significant weight loss)

  • somatic complaints

  • social withdrawal

  • declining school performance


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What depression may look like:

  • Negative thinking – “I can’t, I won’t”

  • Social withdrawal

  • Irritability

  • Poor school performance (not just grades)

  • Lack of interest in peer activities

  • Muscle aches or lack of energy

  • Reports of feeling helpless a lot of the time.

  • Lowering their confidence-level about intelligence, friends, future, body, etc.

  • Getting into trouble because of boredom.


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What Works for Depression

  • Psychoeducation

  • Cognitive/Coping

  • Problem Solving

  • Activity Scheduling

  • Skill-building/Behavioral Rehearsal

  • Social Skills Training

  • Communication Skills


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Cognitive/Coping

  • Change cognitive distortions

  • Increase positive self talk

  • Identify the type of event that will trigger the irrational thought.

  • Help students become aware of their thoughts

  • Recognize and get rid of negative self talk

  • Counter negative thoughts with realistic positive self talk

  • Believe the positive self talk!


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Cognitive Distortions

  • Exaggerating - Making self-critical or other critical statements that include terms like never, nothing, everything or always.

  • Filtering - Ignoring positive things that occur to and around self but focusing on and inflating the negative.

  • Labeling - Calling self or others a bad name when displeased with a behavior

Adapted from: Walker, P.H. & Martinez, R. (Eds.) (2001) Excellence in Mental Health: A school Health Curriculum - A Training Manual for Practicing School Nurses and Educators. Funded by HRSA, Division of Nursing, printed by the University of Colorado School of Nursing.


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Cognitive Distortions

  • Discounting - Rejecting positive experiences as not important or meaningful.

  • Catastrophizing - Blowing expected consequences out of proportion in a negative direction.

  • Self-blaming - Holding self responsible for an outcome that was not completely under one's control.

Adapted from: Walker, P.H. & Martinez, R. (Eds.) (2001) Excellence in Mental Health: A school Health Curriculum - A Training Manual for Practicing School Nurses and Educators. Funded by HRSA, Division of Nursing, printed by the University of Colorado School of Nursing.


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Anxiety

  • Panic Disorder

  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

  • Specific Phobias

  • Separation Anxiety Disorder

  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder


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Anxiety - Prevalence

  • 13% of youth ages 9 to 17 will have an anxiety disorder in any given year

  • Girls are affected more than boys

  • ~1/2 of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have a 2nd anxiety disorder or other co-occurring disorder, such as depression


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Panic Disorder - Diagnostic Criteria

I. Recurrent unexpected Panic Attacks

Criteria for Panic Attack: A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes:

(1) Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate

(2) Sweating

(3) Trembling or shaking

(4) Sensations of shortness of breath or smothering

(5) Feeling of choking

(6) Chest pain or discomfort

(7) Nausea or abdominal distress

(8) Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint

(9) Derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself)

(10) Fear of losing control or going crazy

(11) Fear of dying

(12) Paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations)

(13) Chills or hot flushes


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Specific Phobias

  • Marked and persistent fear of a specific object or situation with exposure causing an immediate anxiety response that is excessive or unreasonable

  • In children, anxiety may be expressed as crying, tantrums, freezing, or clinging.

  • Animal phobias most common childhood phobia.

  • Also frequently afraid of the dark and imaginary creatures

  • In older children and adolescents, fears are more focused on health, social and school problems

  • Adults recognize that their fear is excessive. Children may not.

  • Causes significant interference in life, or significant distress.

  • Under 18 years of age – symptoms must be > 6 months


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Separation Anxiety Disorder

Developmentally inappropriate and excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from those to whom the individual is attached, as evidenced by three (or more) of the following:

  • Recurrent excessive distress when separation from home or major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated

  • Persistent and excessive worry about losing, or about possible harm befalling, major attachment figures

  • Persistent and excessive worry that an untoward event will lead to separation from a major attachment figure (e.g., getting lost or being kidnapped)

  • Persistent reluctance or refusal to go to school or elsewhere because of fear of separation


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Separation Anxiety Disorder

  • Persistently and excessively fearful or reluctant to be alone or without major attachment figures at home or without significant adults in other settings

  • Persistent reluctance or refusal to go to sleep without being near a major attachment figure or to sleep away from home

  • Repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation

  • Repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomachaches, nausea, or vomiting) when separation from major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated

  • Duration of at least 4 weeks

  • Causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, academic (occupational), or other important areas of functioning


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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Excessive anxiety and worry for at least 6 months, more days than not

  • Worry about performance at school, sports, etc.

  • DSM IV criteria less stringent for children (Need only one criteria instead of three of six):

    • Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge

    • Being easily fatigued

    • Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank

    • Irritability

    • Muscle tension

    • Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep, or restless unsatisfying sleep)


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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

  • Presence of Obsessions (thoughts) and/or Compulsions (behaviors)

  • Although adults may have insight, kids may not

  • Interferes with life or causes distress

  • One third to one half of all adult patients report onset in childhood or adolescence


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Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The person has been exposed to a traumatic event in which both of the following were present:

  • (1) The person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others

  • (2) The person's response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. (Note: In children, this may be expressed instead by disorganized or agitated behavior.)


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Persistent Re-experiencing of event (1 or more)

  • Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, including images, thoughts, or perceptions. (Note: In young children, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the trauma are expressed.)

  • Recurrent distressing dreams of the event. (Note: In children, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.)

  • Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a sense of reliving the experience, illusions, hallucinations, and dissociative flashback episodes, including those that occur on awakening or when intoxicated). (Note: In young children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur.)

  • Intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event physiological reactivity on exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event


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Avoidance and Numbing (3 or more)

  • Efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with the trauma

  • Efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of the trauma

  • Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma

  • Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities

  • Feeling of detachment or estrangement from others

  • Restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings)

  • Sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., does not expect to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span)


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Increased Arousal (2 or more)

  • Difficulty falling or staying asleep

  • Irritability or outbursts of anger

  • Difficulty concentrating

  • Hypervigilance

  • Exaggerated startle response


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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

  • At least one month duration.

  • Causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning

  • Many students with PTSD meet criteria for another Axis I Disorder (e.g., major depression, Panic Disorder) – both should be diagnosed

  • Prevalence in adolescents

    • 4% of boys and 6% of girls

    • 75% of those with PTSD have additional mental health problem

      (Breslau et al., 1991; Kilpatrick 2003, Horowitz, Weine & Jekel, 1995 )


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Impact of trauma on learning

  • Decreased IQ and reading ability (Delaney-Black et al., 2003)

  • Lower grade-point average (Hurt et al., 2001)

  • More days of school absence (Hurt et al., 2001)

  • Decreased rates of high school graduation (Grogger, 1997)

  • Increased expulsions and suspensions (LAUSD Survey)


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Effective Practice Strategies

  • Modeling

  • Relaxation

  • Cognitive/Coping

  • Exposure


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What is Modeling?

  • Demonstration of a desired behavior by a therapist, confederates, peers, or other actors to promote the imitation and subsequent performance of that behavior by the identified youth


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What is Relaxation?

  • Techniques or exercises designed to induce physiological calming, including muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, meditation, and similar activities.

  • Guided imagery exclusively for the purpose of physical relaxation is considered relaxation.


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Relaxation: Deep Breathing

  • Breathe from the stomach rather than from the lungs

  • Can be used in class without anyone noticing

  • Can be used during stressful moments such as taking an exam or while trying to relax at home

  • Children should breathe in to the count of 5, and out to the count of 5. Adolescents should breathe in and out to the count of 8

  • Have them take 3 normal breaths in between deep breaths

  • Have them imagine a balloon filling with air, then totally emptying


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Relaxation: Mental Imagery/Visualization Tips

  • Have the student close his/her eyes and imagine a relaxing place such as a beach

  • While they imagine this, describe the place to them, including what they see, hear, feel, and smell

  • Younger students may use a picture or drawing to help them


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Relaxation: Progressive Muscle Relaxation

  • Alternating between states of muscle tension and relaxation helps differentiate between the two states and helps habituate a process of relaxing muscles that are tensed

  • Many good tapes/c.d.’s available on relaxation


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ADHD Prevalence

  • Range from 1-16% depending on criteria used

  • 3-5% prevalence in school-age children

  • Male: female ratio is 3:1 to 10:1

  • Occurs more frequently in lower SES


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ADHD DSM-IV Diagnosis

  • 6 or more inattentive items

  • 6 or more hyperactive/impulsive items

  • Persistent for at least 6 months

  • Clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning

  • Inconsistent with developmental level

  • Some symptoms that caused impairment before the age of 7

  • Impairment is present in two or more settings (school, home, work)


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Inattention

  • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work or other activities

  • Often has difficulty sustaining attention in task or play activities

  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly

  • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositionality or failure to understand instructions)

  • Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities

  • Often avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort

  • Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities

  • Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli

  • Is often forgetful in daily activities


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Hyperactivity

1) Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat

2) Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected

3) Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)

4) Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly

5) Is often “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor”

6) Often talks excessively


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Impulsivity

  • Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed

  • Often has difficulty awaiting turn

  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others


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Make sure it is ADHD!

Mood/Anxiety Problems

PDD Spectrum


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What Doesn’t Work for ADHD?

  • Treatments with little or no evidence of effectiveness include

    • Special elimination diets

    • Vitamins or other health food remedies

    • Psychotherapy or psychoanalysis

    • Biofeedback

    • Play therapy

    • Chiropractic treatment

    • Sensory integration training

    • Social skills training

    • Self-control training


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Basic Principles for Effective Practice for ADHD

  • Clear and brief rules

  • Swift consequences

  • Frequent consequences

  • Powerful consequences

  • Rich incentives

  • Change rewards

  • Expect failures

  • Anticipate


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Praise

  • Praising correctly increases compliance in youth with ADHD

    • Praise can include

      • Verbal praise, Encouragement

      • Attention

      • Affection

      • Physical proximity


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Giving Effective Praise

  • Be honest, not overly flattering

  • Be specific

  • No “back-handed compliments” (i.e., “I like the way you are working quietly, why can’t you do this all the time?”)

  • Give praise immediately


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Ignoring and Differential Reinforcement

  • Train staff and teachers to selectively

    • Ignore mild unwanted behaviors

      AND

    • Attend to and REINFORCE alternative positive behaviors


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How to ignore

  • Visual cues

    • Look away once child engages in undesirable behavior

    • Do not look at the child until behavior stops

  • Postural cues

    • Turn the front of your body away from the location of child’s undesirable behavior

    • Do not appear frustrated (e.g., hands on hip)

    • Do not vary the frequency or intensity of your current activity (e.g., talking faster or louder)


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How to ignore

  • Vocal cues

    • Maintain a calm voice even after your child begins undesirable behavior

    • Do not vary the frequency or intensity of your voice (e.g., don’t talk faster or shout over the child)

  • Social cues

    • Continue your intended activity even after your child begins undesirable behavior

    • Do not panic once child’s begins inappropriate behavior (i.e., do not draw more attention to child)


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When to Ignore

  • When to ignore undesirable behavior

    • Child interrupts conversation or class

    • Child blurts out answers before question completed

    • Child tantrums

  • Do not ignore undesirable behavior that could potentially harm the child or someone else


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Differential reinforcement

Step One: Ignore (stop reinforcing) the child’s undesirable behavior

Step Two: Reinforce the child’s desirable behavior in a systematic manner

  • The desirable behavior should be a behavior that is incompatible with the undesirable behavior

    Example:

  • Target behavior: Interrupting

  • Desirable behavior: Working by himself

  • Reward schedule: 5 minutes

    • If child goes 5 minutes without interrupting, the child receives reinforcement

    • If child interrupts before 5 minutes is up, the child does not receive reinforcement and the reward schedule is reset


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    Defining Disruptive Behaviors

    • Types of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD):

      • ADHD

      • Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) – loses temper, argues with adults, easily annoyed, actively defies or refuses to comply with adults.

      • Conduct Disorder (CD) – aggression toward peers, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.


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    Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    “You left your D__M car in the driveway again!”


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    Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    A pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behavior lasting greater than 6 months of which you have 4 or more of the following:

    • Loses temper

    • Argues with adults

    • Actively defies or refuses to comply with rules

    • Often deliberately annoys people

    • Blames others for his/her mistakes

    • Often touchy or easily annoyed with others

    • Often angry and resentful

    • Often spiteful or vindictive


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    Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD)

    • Prevalence-3-10%

    • Male to female -2-3:1

    • Outcome-in one study, 44% of 7-12 year old boys with ODD developed into CD

    • Evaluation-Look for comorbid ADHD, depression, anxiety & Learning Disability/Mental Retardation


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    Conduct Disorder(CD)

    Aggression toward people or animals

    Deceitfulness or Theft

    Destruction of property

    Serious violation of rules


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    Conduct Disorder(CD)

    • Prevalence-1.5-3.4%

    • Boys greatly outnumber girls (3-5:1)

    • Co-morbid ADHD in 50%, common to have LD

    • Course-remits by adulthood in 2/3. Others become Antisocial Personality Disorder

    • Can be diagnosed as early onset (before age 10) or regular onset (after age 10)


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    Practices that Work with DBD

    • Praise

    • Commands/limit setting

    • Tangible rewards

    • Response cost

    • Psychoeducation

    • Problem solving


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    Steps to Making Effective Commands

    • To make eye contact with the child before giving command

    • To reduce other distractions while giving commands

    • To ask the child to repeat the command

    • To watch the child for one minute after giving the command to ensure compliance

    • To immediately praise child when s/he starts to comply


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    Effective Commands/Limit Setting with Adolescents

    • Praise teens for appropriate behavior

    • Tell teen what to do, rather than what not to do

    • Eliminate other distractions while giving commands

    • Break down multi-step commands

    • Use aids for commands that involve time

    • Present the consequences for noncompliance

    • Not respond to compliance with gratitude


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    Setting up a Reward System for Children at School

    • School staff tracks the child’s behavior and reports it to the parent daily.

      • Rewards can given at home or at school

    • Choose a few target behaviors at school

      • Choose one that the child will be successful with most of the time

      • Set up a system for school report card or school/home note system

    • Set up a daily report card targeting one to three behaviors

    • Can also set up guidance counselor, tutor or peer as “coach” for organizational skills or other targets


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    Acting Out Cycle

    Peak

    Acceleration

    De-escalation

    Agitation

    Trigger

    Recovery

    Calm

    Adapted from The Iris Center: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu


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    Case Example - Elementary

    James is a first grader who has been identified by his teacher as having problems in the classroom. The teacher reports that he never finishes his classroom assignments, never does his homework, does not stay in his seat, and regularly disrupts other students when they are trying to do their work. She added that he is a bright young boy who seems to understand what needs to be done, but cannot focus his attention long enough to complete needed tasks. His parents are coming in for an appointment with you today and have told the teacher they’ll do anything to make the situation better for their son. He has no prior treatment history.

    What are your suggestions about how to intervene?


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    Case Example – High School

    Tyler is a 17 year old senior who self referred to the school mental health clinician. He has always done well in school, but reports that he has lost interest in school and all his activities in the past year. He has gone from an “A” student to a “D” student. He reports that he has been feeling sad for a year and doesn’t really know why. He has lost significant weight from his lack of appetite and reports problems concentrating and sleeping. He is confused by why he is so sad, but feels he just can’t “snap out of it” and wants help. He blames himself for not being able to handle senior year as well as his other friends. He stated to you that “I’m the only one who is going through problems and it is my fault that I can’t handle it better.”

    What are some ideas about how to intervene?


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    General Strategies

    • Use active listening

    • Don’t be afraid to show that you care

    • Be a good role model

    • Take the time to greet students daily

    • Show genuine interest in their lives and hobbies

    • Find and reinforce the positives

    • Move beyond labels and leave assumptions at home!

    • Smiles are contagious

    • Take the time to problem solve with students

    • Involve families in a child’s education

    • Instill hope about the future


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