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Chapter Outline. Physical Activity vs. Exercise. Surgeon General’s Report. A Wellness Lifestyle. Wellness, Fitness, & Longevity. Types of Physical Fitness. Leading U.S. Health Problems. Comprehensive Wellness Program. Wellness Challenge of 21st Century. A Personalized Approach.

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Chapter 1 l.jpg

ChapterOutline

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Chapter 1

Physical Fitness and Wellness

.


Humans created to move l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Humans: Created to move

  • Physical inactivity leads to disease and premature death

    • Physically active people live longer

    • Technological advances have greatly reduced required daily physical activity

    • 400,000 deaths in the U.S. were attributed to poor diet and physical inactivity in the year 2000


Life expectancy l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Life expectancy

  • Beginning of the 20th century

    • Life expectancy was 47 years

    • Major life threats were infectious diseases: tuberculosis, diphtheria, influenza, polio, etc.

  • Late 20th century

    • Infectious diseases eliminated with medical breakthroughs

    • Life expectancy increased to 76.9 years but living the so-called “good life” encouraged chronic diseases:hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancer, etc.


Fitness wellness movement l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Fitness & wellness movement

  • The fitness and wellness movement resulted from the need to combat chronic disease

  • Focus became disease prevention through a healthy lifestyle


Slide5 l.jpg

Figure 1.1

Physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits have caused an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases


Healthy life expectancy in u s l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Healthy life expectancy in U.S.

  • Average life expectancy in the U.S. is 76.9 years

  • Healthy life expectancy is defined as the years of illness subtracted from life expectancy

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) calculated in 2000 that the healthy life expectancy of the U.S. was 24th in the world


Slide7 l.jpg

Figure 1.2

Healthy life expectancy in the United States lags behind other countries


Key terms l.jpg

Physical Activity: Bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles; requires expenditure of energy and produces progressive health benefits

Exercise: A type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement with the intent of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Key terms


1996 surgeon general s report l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

1996 surgeon general’s report

  • Poor health because of lack of physical activity is a serious public health problem

  • More than 60% of adults do not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity

  • 25% are not physically active at all

  • Almost half of all people between 12 and 21 years of age are not vigorously active on a regular basis


1996 surgeon general s report10 l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

1996 surgeon general’s report

  • Physical inactivity is more prevalent in

    • Women than men

    • African Americans and Hispanic Americans than whites

    • Older than younger adults

    • Less affluent than more affluent people

    • Less educated than more educated adults


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Table 1.1

The 1996 report became a nationwide call to action


Critical thinking l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Critical thinking

  • Do you consciously incorporate physical activity into your daily lifestyle?

  • Can you provide examples?

  • Do you feel that you get sufficient daily physical activity to maintain good health?


Moderate physical activity l.jpg

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Moderate physical activity

  • Provides benefits through regular participation

    • Can prevent premature death, unnecessary illness, and disability

    • For people who are not physically active:

      • Can provide substantial benefits in health and well-being

    • For people who are already moderately active:

      • Greater health and fitness benefits can be obtained when intensity of physical activity is increased


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Moderate physical activity: Activity that uses 150 calories of energy per day, or 1,000 calories per week

Vigorous activity: Any exercise that requires a MET level equal to or greater than 6 METs or 21 ml/kg/min (1 MET = energy expenditure at rest or the equivalent of 3.5 ml/kg/min)

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Key terms


Key terms15 l.jpg

Physical fitness: The ability to meet the ordinary as well as the unusual demands of daily life safely and effectively without being overly fatigued and still have energy left for leisure and recreational activities

Health-related fitness: Fitness programs that are prescribed to improve the overall health of the individual

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Key terms


Key terms16 l.jpg

Skill-related fitness:Fitness components important for success in skillful activities and athletic events; encompasses agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed

Metabolic fitness:Improvements in the metabolic profile through a moderate-intensity exercise program in spite of little or no improvement in physical fitness measures

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Key terms


Slide17 l.jpg

Health and fitness benefits according to lifestyle and physical activity program

Figure 1.10

  • Attaining the health fitness standard requires only moderate physical activity

  • For high physical fitness, a high intensity exercise program is required


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Physical activity vs. mortality physical activity program

Figure 1.5

Studies show an inverse relationship between physical activity and premature mortality rates


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Although greater improvements in fitness yield a slightly lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Figure 1.6

Fitness levels vs. mortality


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Figure 1.7 lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Effects of fitness changes on mortality rates

Even greater protection is attained by combining higher fitness levels with reduction in other risk factors


Health related fitness l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Health-related fitness

Cardiorespiratory endurance

Muscular flexibility

Body composition

Muscular strength and endurance


Motor skill related fitness l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Motor skill–related fitness


Critical thinking23 l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Critical thinking

  • What role do the four health-related components of physical fitness play in your life?

  • Can you rank in order of importance to you and explain your rationale in doing so?


Two fitness standards l.jpg

Health fitness standard lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Minimum fitness values required for disease prevention and health

Physical fitness standard

Higher standard required to achieve good or excellent physical fitness

Physical fitness standard

Requires more intense exercise to allow people of all ages the freedom to enjoy life’s daily and recreational activities to their fullest potential

Current health fitness standards are not enough to achieve these objectives

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Two fitness standards


Key terms25 l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Key terms

  • Wellness: The constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being; It integrates seven dimensions


Wellness continuum l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Wellness continuum

  • Although an individual may demonstrate adequate or excellent fitness, indulgence in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors will increase risk for chronic diseases and diminish wellness


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Leading Causes of Death in the United States lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Figure 1.11


Lifestyle as a health problem l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Lifestyle as a health problem

Almost 80% of deaths in the U.S. today could be prevented through a healthy lifestyle program.”


Actual causes of death in the u s l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Actual causes of death in the U.S.

  • The top three causes of death in the U.S.— tobacco use, poor diet and inactivity, and alcohol abuse—are responsible for 920,000 deaths each year

Tobacco 435,000

Poor diet/inactivity 400,000

Alcohol 85,000

Microbial infections 75,000

Toxic agents 55,000

Motor vehicles 43,000

Firearms 29,000

Sexual behaviors 20,000

Drugs 17,000

Updated figures from JAMA 291:1238–1245, 2004


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Figure 1.13 lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Health care costs in the U.S. for selected years


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Figure 1.14 lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

  • U.S. spends more on yearly health care per person than any other industrialized nation

Yet U.S. health care ranks 37th in the world

One reason for low ranking is overemphasis on state-of-the art cures instead of prevention


Lifestyle as a health problem32 l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Lifestyle as a health problem

  • Over 50% of people who die in U.S. die because of what they do

    • More than half of disease is lifestyle-related

    • A fifth is attributed to the environment

    • A tenth is influenced by the health care the individual receives

    • Only 16% is related to genetics

  • The individual controls as much as 84% of vulnerability to disease and quality of life

  • 83% of deaths before age 65 are preventable


Lifestyle as a health problem33 l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Lifestyle as a health problem

In essence, most people in the United States are threatened by the verylives they lead today.”


Healthy lifestyle habits l.jpg

Participate in a lifetime physical activity program lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Do not smoke cigarettes

Eat three nutritious meals each day

Avoid meaningless snacking

Maintain healthy weight

Get enough sleep

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Healthy lifestyle habits


Healthy lifestyle habits35 l.jpg

Control stress lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Be wary of alcohol

Surround yourself with healthy friendships

Be informed about the environment

Increase education

Take personal safety measures

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Healthy lifestyle habits


Slide36 l.jpg

2010 National Health Objectives lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

Figure 1.15

Two unique goals of the 2010 national health objectives emphasize increased quality and years of healthy life and seek to eliminate health disparities among all groups of people


Critical thinking37 l.jpg

Physical lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groupsActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

Critical thinking

  • What are your feelings about lifestyle habits that enhance health and longevity?

  • How important are they to you?

  • What obstacles keep you from adhering to such habits or incorporating new ones into your life?


A personalized approach in this course you will learn to l.jpg

Implement motivational and behavior modification techniques for wellness

Determine whether medical clearance is needed for exercise participation

Conduct a nutrient analysis and follow recommendations for adequate nutrition

Write your own nutrition and weight-control programs

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

A personalized approachIn this course you will learn to


A personalized approach in this course you will learn to39 l.jpg

Assess your health-related components of fitness for wellness

Write exercise prescriptions for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and muscular flexibility

Understand the relationship between fitness and aging

Determine your levels of tension and stress, lessen your vulnerability to stress, and implement a stress management program if necessary

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

A personalized approachIn this course you will learn to


A personalized approach in this course you will learn to40 l.jpg

Follow a cancer risk–reduction program for wellness

Implement a smoking cessation program, if applicable

Avoid chemical dependency and know where to find assistance if needed

Learn health consequences of sexually transmitted diseases

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

A personalized approachIn this course you will learn to


A personalized approach in this course you will learn to41 l.jpg

Write objectives to improve your fitness and wellness and learn how to chart a wellness program for the future

Differentiate myths and facts about exercise and health-related concepts

PhysicalActivity vs.

Exercise

SurgeonGeneral’s Report

A WellnessLifestyle

Wellness,Fitness, &Longevity

Types ofPhysicalFitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

ComprehensiveWellness Program

Wellness Challenge of 21st Century

A Personalized Approach

A personalized approachIn this course you will learn to


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End of Chapter learn how to chart a wellness program for the future


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