Learning and Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Learning and memory l.jpg
Download
1 / 47

  • 538 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: Pets / Animals

Learning and Memory. Stimulus learning; elicited behavior. Definitions. Stimulus Response Elicit Novelty Salient Trials. Elicited Behavior: Reflexes. Innate Automatic responses Fixed? Examples Patella tendon reflex Newborn reflexes Pain-withdrawal reflex

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Learning and Memory

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Learning and memory l.jpg

Learning and Memory

Stimulus learning; elicited behavior


Definitions l.jpg

Definitions

  • Stimulus

  • Response

  • Elicit

  • Novelty

  • Salient

  • Trials


Elicited behavior reflexes l.jpg

Elicited Behavior: Reflexes

  • Innate

  • Automatic responses

  • Fixed?

  • Examples

    • Patella tendon reflex

    • Newborn reflexes

    • Pain-withdrawal reflex

  • Very simple in the nervous system


Complex forms of elicited behavior l.jpg

Complex forms of elicited behavior

  • Fixed (Modal) action patterns

    • Tinbergen and Lorenz

    • Definition

    • Example

      • Eibl-Eidesfeldt (1975) and squirrels


Slide6 l.jpg

  • Species of squirrel and nut burying behavior

    • Observed that once squirrel: Picks up the nut  climbs down to the ground  searches for a place at the bottom of tree trunk or large rock

    • MAP: Once found, scratches a hole with forelimbs  places the nut in hole  rams the nut in place with snout  covers with dirt

  • Is this innate? Maybe they learn by watching other squirrels.

  • Example – Herring-gulls and egg rolling behavior


Example herring gull chicks l.jpg

Example: Herring-gull chicks


Examples of maps three spined stickleback l.jpg

Examples of MAPs: three-spined stickleback


Human examples contagious yawning l.jpg

Human examples? – contagious yawning


Infant caregiving a map l.jpg

Infant caregiving – A MAP?

  • Head large in proportion to the body

  • Protruding forehead large in proportion to the size of the rest of the face

  • Large ears and eyes below the midline of the head

  • Small nose

  • Short thick extremities

  • Rounded body shape

  • Soft elastic body surfaces

  • Round protruding cheeks

  • Animals that are “cute” have similar traits.


Slide11 l.jpg

  • Key aspects of MAPS

  • Stereotypical behaviors, but not fixed

  • Sign stimulus

    • Key features of the sign stimulus are needed

    • Ex. Herring-gull bill

    • Ex. Sexual behavior in Japanese quail

  • Adaptive

  • Innate-releasing mechanism

  • Depend on situational factors – E.g., motivation, timing, etc.

  • Supernormal stimulus –

    • Gull example


Slide13 l.jpg

  • Any superstimuli in humans?


Slide14 l.jpg

  • Imprinting – immediate learning

    • Ducks and boxes

  • Critical periods

  • Memory lasts the life-span

  • Examples: Mice and odors

  • Zebra finches and mate choice

  • Westermark effect

    • Israeli kibbutz

    • Adaptive?


Changing elicited behavior habituation and sensitization l.jpg

Changing elicited behavior: Habituation and Sensitization

  • Orienting response

    • Depends on the nature of the stimulus

    • Infants and OR

  • Habituation – reduction of the orienting response after repeated presentations.

    • Simplest form of learning

    • In all species including protozoa and isolated tissue

    • adaptive

  • Examples?

  • Not just the OR


Habituation of the startle response in rats l.jpg

Habituation of the Startle Response in Rats

  • http://go.owu.edu/~deswartz/videos/habituation.mov


Measuring habituation l.jpg

Measuring Habituation

  • GSR

  • Heart rate changes

  • Eye fixation

  • Lever pressing


Sensitization l.jpg

Sensitization

  • Opposite of habituation

  • Increased response with repeated stimulation.

  • Intense and salient stimuli

  • Examples:

    • Pain response

    • Annoying sounds

    • Fear-potentiated startle

    • Everyday examples?


Slide19 l.jpg

  • Habituation is learning

    • Not sensory adaptation or fatigue

    • Can last over long periods of time (long-term habituation)

    • dishabituation


Slide20 l.jpg

  • Habituation of reflexive behavior

  • Reflex is a 3 step process

    • Stimulus activates sense organ

    • Relay of sensory messages through interneurons to motor neurons

    • Activation of motor neurons causing muscle to move

  • Habituation occurs at the second step


Slide21 l.jpg

Sensory

adaptation

Habituation

Fatigue


Characteristics of habituation l.jpg

Characteristics of habituation

  • Stimulus specificity of habituation:

    • Stimulus generalization

    • Generalization gradient


Slide23 l.jpg

  • Effects of time:

    • A) Habituation will not occur if trials are very spaced.

    • greater stimulus frequency, greater habituation


Slide24 l.jpg

  • Effects of time:

    • B) Responding may reoccur after a lapse of time: spontaneous recovery


Spontaneous recovery video l.jpg

Spontaneous Recovery Video

  • http://go.owu.edu/~deswartz/videos/spontaneous_recovery.mov


Slide26 l.jpg

  • Effects of stimulus intensity – stronger the intensity, slower the habituation.


Slide27 l.jpg

  • Effects of exposure to a second stimulus

  • Dishabituation

  • Sensitive to time: Attenuation of dishabituation when there is a time gap.


Dishabituation video l.jpg

Dishabituation video

  • http://go.owu.edu/~deswartz/videos/dishabituation.mov


Slide29 l.jpg

  • Savings in habituation

1st habituation

2nd habituation


Slide30 l.jpg

  • Sensitization effects mirror habituation

  • More stimulus generalization

  • Sensitization = arousal


Habituation and sensitization in aplysia l.jpg

Habituation and sensitization in Aplysia


Theories of habituation and sensitization l.jpg

Theories of Habituation and Sensitization

  • Two underlying processes exist

    • 1) A Habituation process

    • 2) A Sensitization process

  • The observable behavior is the sum of these two processes.

  • The habituation effect is observed when the habituation process is greater than the sensitization process.


Dual process examples l.jpg

Dual Process examples

Sensitization effect

Habituation effect


Habituation and human infant research l.jpg

Habituation and Human Infant Research

  • Used to study infant perception and cognition

    • Difficult to study


Slide45 l.jpg

Looking

Time

Trials


Slide46 l.jpg

  • Habituation-dishabituation procedure

    • The infant is exposed repeatedly to a stimulus until its looking at the stimulus is at a low value

    • Habituation is only possible if the infant remembers the stimulus

    • Dishabituation is only possible if the infant can compare the stimulus to the original stimulus


What do infants like to look at l.jpg

What do infants like to look at?

  • Moderately bright objects

  • Moderately complex objects

    • Changes as child develops

      • 3-week-olds like 2x2 checkerboards

      • 14-week-olds like 8x8 checkerboards

      • 4-month-olds initially preferred 2x2, but after repeated ex. Liked 24x24

  • Prefer attractive faces


  • Login