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G AMES -T O -T EACH P ROJECT Fall 2002. Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies Indiana University Henry Jenkins : Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies. Games-to-Teach. Background / historical context Design Research Activities Design commitments

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g ames t o t each p roject fall 2002
GAMES-TO-TEACH PROJECTFall 2002

Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies

Indiana University

Henry Jenkins: Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies

slide2

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Design Research Activities
  • Design commitments
  • 10 Conceptual frameworks
  • Themes
  • Next steps / invitation for participation
slide3

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Research
  • Design commitments
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Next steps / invitation for participation
slide8

Games-to-Teach Vision

Contemporary Pedagogy

+

State-of-the-Art Gaming

=

Next Generation Educational Media

slide10

Games-to-Teach

GameDesigners

MITFaculty

ComparativeMedia

Studies

Educational Technologists

Students

slide11

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Research
  • Design commitments
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Next steps / invitation for participation
slide12

Research on Gaming

  • Educational games don’t work(Clegg, 1991; Downey & Levstick, 1973; Ehman & Glenn, 1991; Gredler, 1996)
  • Lacking a coherent theoretical framework(Gredler, 1996)
  • Instructional context more important than media(Clark, 1983; White & Frederickson, 1998)
slide13

Research on Gaming

  • Produce increased motivation (Cordova & Lepper, 1997; Malone, 1985)
  • Effective within inquiry framework (Clark, 1983; White & Frederickson, 1998)
  • Social interactions produce learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1985)
  • Large disconnect between “state-of-the-art” and educational games (Squire, 2002)
  • “Emerging pedagogies” (Squire & Reigeluth, 1999)
    • Problem Based Learning (Barrows et al, 1999)
    • Anchored Instruction (Bransford et al, 1992)
    • Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, 1996)
    • Case-Based Reasoning
slide15

Participants

  • Educational Researchers
    • Howard Gardner, Mitchell Resnick, Chris Dede, Steven Pinker
  • Media theorists
    • Henry Jenkins, Justine Cassell, Nick Montfort
  • Teachers & MIT Faculty
    • Bonnie Bracey (K-12), Woodie Flowers (MIT), John Belcher (MIT), Tom Keating (San Francisco Exploratorium)
  • Students
    • MIT, Boston Gibbs, UMass, Central Florida
    • Survey 653 MIT students
mit student survey
MIT Student Survey

Survey of MIT undergraduate student body

  • 653/4000 Respondents

MIT students grew up with games

  • All respondents played a computer or video game; 88% before age 10

Most MIT students are frequent game players

  • 60% spend more than an hour / week playing games
    • (compared to 33% for television, 57% reading)
  • 30% of respondents students play online games > 1 hour / week
mit student survey17
MIT Student Survey

555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.

  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55
  • Starcraft 46
  • Civiliation I/ II 29
  • Zelda 24
  • Tetris 22
  • Quake 21
  • 33 Mario Franchises: Super Mario Brothers; Mario Kart
  • Unreal Tournmanet 12
  • Snood 12
  • Madden Sports 8
  • The Sims 6
slide18

Participants

  • Game Designers
    • Bryan Sullivan (Ironlore / Age of Empires),
    • Doug Church (ION Storm / Thief, Deus Ex),
    • Eric Zimmerman (gamelab / Sissyfight 2000 / Lego Junkbot),
    • Brenda Laurel (Purple Moon / Rocket’s adventures),
    • Chris Weaver (Bethesda / Morrowind),
    • Alex Rigopulous (Harmonix / Frequency)
    • Kent Quirk (Cognitoy / Mind Rover),
    • Matt Ford (Microsoft / Asheron’s Call),
    • Steve Meretzky (Infocom / Hitchhiker’s Guide),
    • Ben Sawyer (Digimill / Virtual U)
    • Brian Moriarty (Infocom / Loom)
slide19

Design Commitments

  • Appeal to broad audiences
    • Women in lead design roles
    • Gender inclusive game designs
  • Leverage existing genres
  • Grounded in existing learning sciences research
  • Provide “transgressive play”
  • Address misconceptions
  • “Induce” contextuality
  • Designing for sociability (Preece, 1999)
  • Recognizing Instructional Context
  • Assessments
slide22

Replicate

  • Transgressive Play
  • Choice  Engagement & Critical Thinking with content
  • Specialization and differentiation (role playing)
  • Visualization
  • Elucidate misconceptions
    • Viruses & Temperature
slide28

DreamHaus:Hybrid Game Genres

  • Romantic allure of architecture
  • Intrinsically interesting aspects of engineering
  • Rich Characterization
  • Learning through Construction
  • Multiple Play Styles
  • Community Connections
  • Humor Playfulness
cuckoo time30
Cuckoo Time!
  • MisconceptionsPower-ups = Scientific VariablesMultiplayer
cuckoo time31
Cuckoo Time!
  • Lectures
  • Problem Sets
  • Written Assignments
  • Assessments
  • Construction Kits
cuckoo time32
Cuckoo Time!
  • Microworlds
  • Failure
  • Power-ups
  • Multiple Use contacts
  • Collaborative games
biohazard biology through pathology
BiohazardBiology through Pathology
  • Action Role Playing - ER! + Outbreak + Deus Ex - Doctor / Disease control- Simulated Diseases- Biology through pathology - Observation, experimentation- Content

- Inheritance Patterns- Viral Structure and Replication- Reproduction, - Growth and Development- Structural, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations

biohazard goal based scenarios
BiohazardGoal-Based Scenarios

Melodramatic tension Access to tools & resourcesSeductive Failure statesAssessment: Replaying Events

biohazard simulated rpgs
BiohazardSimulated RPGs

Choices & Consequences Time, Resources, & Character Development Developing skills, making contacts, earning reputationSimulated Worlds Viruses, synthetic charactersAuthentic tools Skills, Read-outs, displaysAssessment Statistics, records, reflectionMultiplayer potential

h ephaestus massively multiplayer
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

Earth is dying... our only refuge, 4 light years away… a lone volcanic planet... HEPHAESTUS ...and everyone wants a piece of the pie.

h ephaestus massively multiplayer38
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

- Build Robots down to the gear- Make engineering trade-offs- Carrying load vs. mass - Mass vs. friction- Explore a volcanic planet - Divert lava flows - Gain energy- Spend Resources to upgrade- Personalization - Differentiation

h ephaestus massively multiplayer39
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

- Collaborative & competitive play- Differentiated Roles- Open-ended play-

h ephaestus massively multiplayer40
HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

- Differentiated Roles- Multiple Player types - achiever, socializer, competitor, explorers- Virtual identities- “Elfs & Orcs”- Modes of expression- Collaboration

slide41

Environmental Detectives

  • Handhelds are cheap, powerful, easy to use, and easy to store
  • What to do with them?
  • Lend themselves to gaming and interactive narrative
  • Lack of demonstrated gaming models (US)
slide42

Environmental Detectives

  • Environmental Disaster
  • Interact with chemical simulation
  • Meet virtual characters
  • Share information with peers
  • Write report
  • Devise treatment plan
slide43

Environmental Detectives

  • Augmented realities
social contexts
Social Contexts

If learning is participation…

  • What is legitimate participation in social practices
  • Simulations vs. reality

Social interactions

  • Explaining strategies
  • Teacher’s “just-in-time” lectures

Collaborative communities of practice

Online communities

Sharing strategies (ala The Sims)

Using Games to “induce” complex problem solving

Role Playing

Microworlds

Strategy / Resource Management

slide47

Using Game Conventions

Contested spaces

  • Leveraging contests in content

Power – ups

  • Ways of making students choose
  • Ways of manipulating variables

Character development – choosing skills / items

  • Creating emotional investment
  • Inducing creative thinking

Differentiated Roles

slide48

Future Steps

Internal Development

  • Supercharged! (Electromagnetism)
  • Environmental Detectives (Environmental Studies)
  • Replicate! (Biology & Virology)

Developing with partners

- Biohazard(Emergency Response workers)

New content partners

  • Royal Shakespeare Company
  • Colonial Williamsburg
slide49

Future Steps

Building a network of teachers, researchers and developers…

http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

[email protected]

join us
Join Us!
  • Prototypes 1-10 on the web
    • Designs, pedagogy, technical notes, art
    • Documentation and media
    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

Kurt Squire

[email protected]

slide54

ElectromagnetismSupercharged

Faraday’s Law: Image Courtesy of John Belcher

slide56

Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Cognitive Challenges
    • Principles counter-intuitive
    • No first-hand experience of phenomena
    • Routinized knowledge of procedures
    • Ability to think with tools, resources
    • Ability to participate in scientific practices (inquiry, modeling, explanation)
slide57

Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Robust qualitative understandings
  • Experts use laws to identify problem types
  • Deep understanding of core relationships
  • Ability to visualize abstract concepts
  • Can use knowledge to solve everyday problems
slide58

Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Broader Challenges
    • Functional use value – “Why learn this?”
    • Developing interest in science
    • Identity of “Self as scientist”
    • Science as “memorization of immutable facts.”
slide59

ElectromagnetismSupercharged

  • Why Supercharged?
    • Robust, real time, interactivity
    • Depict abstract relationships in 3D
    • E&M laws as basis for flying / driving game
    • Familiar gaming genres and science fiction
  • Challenges to Supercharged
    • Qualitative, not quantitative interactions
    • Constrained to computer
    • Getting learners involved in hard thinking & creating
pocket pc
Pocket PC
  • GPS / Wireless / Location – based gaming
  • Multiplayer real time role playing game
  • Observing, testing, analyzing, predicting
  • Implementation Contexts
    • Edgerton Center
    • Terrascope Project
    • MIT Classrooms
    • Cambridge Schools
slide61

Game-Based Pedagogy

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

slide62

Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations

slide63

Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations

Classroom Context

slide64

Assessment

  • Game Data
    • Levels completed, time per - problem, solution paths
  • Observations
    • Notes & Video-taped
  • Pre & Post - tests
    • Content “Interviews”
    • Written tests & Surveys
    • Dynamic tasks (zero, near, & far transfer)
  • Interviews with Instructors
  • Comparisons with “traditional groups”
contact information
Contact Information
slide67

Game-Based Pedagogy

  • Importance of instructional context
    • set-up, debriefing, and reflection
  • Leveraging collaboration (e.g. Koschmann, 1996)
    • Reflection
  • Power of local culture & conditions (Squire et al., 2002)
    • Adoption & Adaptation
  • Teacher support and professional development
    • Communities of teachers
slide68

Game-Based Pedagogy

Yuro Engestrom, 1992

slide69

“Endogenous Game Play”

  • Immersive Learning Environments
    • Students developing and testing hypotheses
  • Role playing Games
    • Solving “authentic problems”
    • Access to authentic tools / resources
  • Visualization and Simulation
    • Leveraging potential contests
    • Spatial Conquests
    • Remediating physical laws
slide70

Engaging Media

  • Control, Challenge (Malone, 1981)
    • Instantaneous feedback
    • Adjusted Difficulty level
    • Choice
  • Fantasy, Exploration
    • Narrative, whimsy, fantasy, discovery
  • Social Contexts
    • Collaboration, Competition
slide71

GTT Research

555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.

  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55
  • Starcraft 46
  • Civiliation I/ II 29
  • Zelda 24
  • Tetris 22
  • Quake 21
  • Super Mario Brothers 21
  • Tournmanet 12
  • Snood 12
  • Madden Sports 8
  • The Sims 6
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