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G AMES -T O -T EACH P ROJECT Fall 2002. Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies Indiana University Henry Jenkins : Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies. Games-to-Teach. Background / historical context Design Research Activities Design commitments

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GAMES-TO-TEACH PROJECTFall 2002

Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies

Indiana University

Henry Jenkins: Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies


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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Design Research Activities

  • Design commitments

  • 10 Conceptual frameworks

  • Themes

  • Next steps / invitation for participation


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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Research

  • Design commitments

  • Conceptual frameworks

  • Next steps / invitation for participation






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Games-to-Teach Vision

Contemporary Pedagogy

+

State-of-the-Art Gaming

=

Next Generation Educational Media



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Games-to-Teach

GameDesigners

MITFaculty

ComparativeMedia

Studies

Educational Technologists

Students


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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Research

  • Design commitments

  • Conceptual frameworks

  • Next steps / invitation for participation


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Research on Gaming

  • Educational games don’t work(Clegg, 1991; Downey & Levstick, 1973; Ehman & Glenn, 1991; Gredler, 1996)

  • Lacking a coherent theoretical framework(Gredler, 1996)

  • Instructional context more important than media(Clark, 1983; White & Frederickson, 1998)


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Research on Gaming

  • Produce increased motivation (Cordova & Lepper, 1997; Malone, 1985)

  • Effective within inquiry framework (Clark, 1983; White & Frederickson, 1998)

  • Social interactions produce learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1985)

  • Large disconnect between “state-of-the-art” and educational games (Squire, 2002)

  • “Emerging pedagogies” (Squire & Reigeluth, 1999)

    • Problem Based Learning (Barrows et al, 1999)

    • Anchored Instruction (Bransford et al, 1992)

    • Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, 1996)

    • Case-Based Reasoning



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Participants

  • Educational Researchers

    • Howard Gardner, Mitchell Resnick, Chris Dede, Steven Pinker

  • Media theorists

    • Henry Jenkins, Justine Cassell, Nick Montfort

  • Teachers & MIT Faculty

    • Bonnie Bracey (K-12), Woodie Flowers (MIT), John Belcher (MIT), Tom Keating (San Francisco Exploratorium)

  • Students

    • MIT, Boston Gibbs, UMass, Central Florida

    • Survey 653 MIT students


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MIT Student Survey

Survey of MIT undergraduate student body

  • 653/4000 Respondents

    MIT students grew up with games

  • All respondents played a computer or video game; 88% before age 10

    Most MIT students are frequent game players

  • 60% spend more than an hour / week playing games

    • (compared to 33% for television, 57% reading)

  • 30% of respondents students play online games > 1 hour / week


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MIT Student Survey

555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.

  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55

  • Starcraft 46

  • Civiliation I/ II 29

  • Zelda 24

  • Tetris 22

  • Quake 21

  • 33 Mario Franchises: Super Mario Brothers; Mario Kart

  • Unreal Tournmanet 12

  • Snood 12

  • Madden Sports 8

  • The Sims 6


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Participants

  • Game Designers

    • Bryan Sullivan (Ironlore / Age of Empires),

    • Doug Church (ION Storm / Thief, Deus Ex),

    • Eric Zimmerman (gamelab / Sissyfight 2000 / Lego Junkbot),

    • Brenda Laurel (Purple Moon / Rocket’s adventures),

    • Chris Weaver (Bethesda / Morrowind),

    • Alex Rigopulous (Harmonix / Frequency)

    • Kent Quirk (Cognitoy / Mind Rover),

    • Matt Ford (Microsoft / Asheron’s Call),

    • Steve Meretzky (Infocom / Hitchhiker’s Guide),

    • Ben Sawyer (Digimill / Virtual U)

    • Brian Moriarty (Infocom / Loom)


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Design Commitments

  • Appeal to broad audiences

    • Women in lead design roles

    • Gender inclusive game designs

  • Leverage existing genres

  • Grounded in existing learning sciences research

  • Provide “transgressive play”

  • Address misconceptions

  • “Induce” contextuality

  • Designing for sociability (Preece, 1999)

  • Recognizing Instructional Context

  • Assessments



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Replicate

  • Transgressive Play

  • Choice  Engagement & Critical Thinking with content

  • Specialization and differentiation (role playing)

  • Visualization

  • Elucidate misconceptions

    • Viruses & Temperature


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DreamHaus: Architectural Engineering


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DreamHaus: Playful Characters


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DreamHaus: Environmental Puzzles


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DreamHaus: Construction Kits


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DreamHaus:Hybrid Game Genres

  • Romantic allure of architecture

  • Intrinsically interesting aspects of engineering

  • Rich Characterization

  • Learning through Construction

  • Multiple Play Styles

  • Community Connections

  • Humor Playfulness



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Cuckoo Time!

  • MisconceptionsPower-ups = Scientific VariablesMultiplayer


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Cuckoo Time!

  • Lectures

  • Problem Sets

  • Written Assignments

  • Assessments

  • Construction Kits


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Cuckoo Time!

  • Microworlds

  • Failure

  • Power-ups

  • Multiple Use contacts

  • Collaborative games


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BiohazardBiology through Pathology

  • Action Role Playing - ER! + Outbreak + Deus Ex - Doctor / Disease control- Simulated Diseases- Biology through pathology - Observation, experimentation- Content

- Inheritance Patterns- Viral Structure and Replication- Reproduction, - Growth and Development- Structural, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations


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BiohazardGoal-Based Scenarios

Melodramatic tension Access to tools & resourcesSeductive Failure statesAssessment: Replaying Events


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BiohazardSimulated RPGs

Choices & Consequences Time, Resources, & Character Development Developing skills, making contacts, earning reputationSimulated Worlds Viruses, synthetic charactersAuthentic tools Skills, Read-outs, displaysAssessment Statistics, records, reflectionMultiplayer potential


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HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

Earth is dying... our only refuge, 4 light years away… a lone volcanic planet... HEPHAESTUS ...and everyone wants a piece of the pie.


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HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

- Build Robots down to the gear- Make engineering trade-offs- Carrying load vs. mass - Mass vs. friction- Explore a volcanic planet - Divert lava flows - Gain energy- Spend Resources to upgrade- Personalization - Differentiation


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HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

- Collaborative & competitive play- Differentiated Roles- Open-ended play-


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HEPHAESTUSMassively Multiplayer

- Differentiated Roles- Multiple Player types - achiever, socializer, competitor, explorers- Virtual identities- “Elfs & Orcs”- Modes of expression- Collaboration


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Environmental Detectives

  • Handhelds are cheap, powerful, easy to use, and easy to store

  • What to do with them?

  • Lend themselves to gaming and interactive narrative

  • Lack of demonstrated gaming models (US)


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Environmental Detectives

  • Environmental Disaster

  • Interact with chemical simulation

  • Meet virtual characters

  • Share information with peers

  • Write report

  • Devise treatment plan


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Environmental Detectives

  • Augmented realities


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Supercharged!Learning Through Microworlds


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Social Contexts

If learning is participation…

  • What is legitimate participation in social practices

  • Simulations vs. reality

    Social interactions

  • Explaining strategies

  • Teacher’s “just-in-time” lectures

    Collaborative communities of practice

    Online communities

    Sharing strategies (ala The Sims)

    Using Games to “induce” complex problem solving

    Role Playing

    Microworlds

    Strategy / Resource Management


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Using Game Conventions

Contested spaces

  • Leveraging contests in content

    Power – ups

  • Ways of making students choose

  • Ways of manipulating variables

    Character development – choosing skills / items

  • Creating emotional investment

  • Inducing creative thinking

    Differentiated Roles


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Future Steps

Internal Development

  • Supercharged! (Electromagnetism)

  • Environmental Detectives (Environmental Studies)

  • Replicate! (Biology & Virology)

    Developing with partners

    - Biohazard(Emergency Response workers)

    New content partners

  • Royal Shakespeare Company

  • Colonial Williamsburg


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Future Steps

Building a network of teachers, researchers and developers…

http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

[email protected]




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Join Us!

  • Prototypes 1-10 on the web

    • Designs, pedagogy, technical notes, art

    • Documentation and media

    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

      Kurt Squire

      [email protected]


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ElectromagnetismSupercharged

Faraday’s Law: Image Courtesy of John Belcher


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ElectromagnetismSupercharged

  • Demo Game


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Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Cognitive Challenges

    • Principles counter-intuitive

    • No first-hand experience of phenomena

    • Routinized knowledge of procedures

    • Ability to think with tools, resources

    • Ability to participate in scientific practices (inquiry, modeling, explanation)


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Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Robust qualitative understandings

  • Experts use laws to identify problem types

  • Deep understanding of core relationships

  • Ability to visualize abstract concepts

  • Can use knowledge to solve everyday problems


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Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Broader Challenges

    • Functional use value – “Why learn this?”

    • Developing interest in science

    • Identity of “Self as scientist”

    • Science as “memorization of immutable facts.”


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ElectromagnetismSupercharged

  • Why Supercharged?

    • Robust, real time, interactivity

    • Depict abstract relationships in 3D

    • E&M laws as basis for flying / driving game

    • Familiar gaming genres and science fiction

  • Challenges to Supercharged

    • Qualitative, not quantitative interactions

    • Constrained to computer

    • Getting learners involved in hard thinking & creating


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Pocket PC

  • GPS / Wireless / Location – based gaming

  • Multiplayer real time role playing game

  • Observing, testing, analyzing, predicting

  • Implementation Contexts

    • Edgerton Center

    • Terrascope Project

    • MIT Classrooms

    • Cambridge Schools


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Game

Student

E&MPhysics


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations

Classroom Context


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Assessment

  • Game Data

    • Levels completed, time per - problem, solution paths

  • Observations

    • Notes & Video-taped

  • Pre & Post - tests

    • Content “Interviews”

    • Written tests & Surveys

    • Dynamic tasks (zero, near, & far transfer)

  • Interviews with Instructors

  • Comparisons with “traditional groups”


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Contact Information

  • Information:

    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

  • To participate in pilot program

    • Email: cms-g2t-pilot

  • Contact:

    • Henry Jenkins: [email protected]

    • Randy Hinrichs: [email protected]

    • Kurt Squire: [email protected]



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Game-Based Pedagogy

  • Importance of instructional context

    • set-up, debriefing, and reflection

  • Leveraging collaboration (e.g. Koschmann, 1996)

    • Reflection

  • Power of local culture & conditions (Squire et al., 2002)

    • Adoption & Adaptation

  • Teacher support and professional development

    • Communities of teachers


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Yuro Engestrom, 1992


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“Endogenous Game Play”

  • Immersive Learning Environments

    • Students developing and testing hypotheses

  • Role playing Games

    • Solving “authentic problems”

    • Access to authentic tools / resources

  • Visualization and Simulation

    • Leveraging potential contests

    • Spatial Conquests

    • Remediating physical laws


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Engaging Media

  • Control, Challenge (Malone, 1981)

    • Instantaneous feedback

    • Adjusted Difficulty level

    • Choice

  • Fantasy, Exploration

    • Narrative, whimsy, fantasy, discovery

  • Social Contexts

    • Collaboration, Competition


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GTT Research

555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.

  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55

  • Starcraft 46

  • Civiliation I/ II 29

  • Zelda 24

  • Tetris 22

  • Quake 21

  • Super Mario Brothers 21

  • Tournmanet 12

  • Snood 12

  • Madden Sports 8

  • The Sims 6


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