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Distillation. Ring stand. Beaker. Wire gauze. Ring. Bunsen burner. Setup to heat a solution. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 42. A Hero’s Fountain. Glass retort. mixture for distillation placed in here. long spout helps vapors to condense.

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setup to heat a solution

Ring stand

Beaker

Wire gauze

Ring

Bunsen burner

Setup to heat a solution

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 42

a hero s fountain
A Hero’s Fountain

Glass retort

mixture for distillation

placed in here

long spout helps

vapors to condense

Furnace

Eyewitness Science “Chemistry” , Dr. Ann Newmark, DK Publishing, Inc., 1993, pg 13

a distillation apparatus

thermometer

liquid with a solid

dissolved in it

condenser

tube

distilling

flask

receiving

flask

pure

liquid

hose connected to

cold water faucet

A Distillation Apparatus

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 282

the solution is boiled and steam is driven off
The solution is boiled and steam is driven off.

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 39

salt remains after all water is boiled off
Salt remains after all water is boiled off.

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 39

no chemical change occurs when salt water is distilled
No chemical change occurs when salt water is distilled.

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 40

separation of a sand saltwater mixture
Separation of a sand-saltwater mixture.

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 40

separation of sand from salt
Separation of Sand from Salt
  • Gently break up your salt-crusted sand with a plastic spoon.
  • Follow this flowchart to make a complete separation.

Salt-

crusted

sand.

Weigh the

mixture.

Pour into

heat-resistant

container.

Fill with

water.

Stir and let

settle 1

minute.

Dry

sand.

Calculate

weight of

salt.

Weigh

sand.

Decant

clear

liquid.

No

  • How does this flow
  • chart insure a complete
  • separation?

Wet

sand.

Evaporate

to

dryness.

Repeat

3 times?

Yes

slide11

Different Types of FuelCombustion

Gasoline (octane)

2 C8H18 + 25 O2  16 CO2+ 18 H2O

Methanol (in racing fuel)

__CH3OH +__O2 __CO2 +__H2O

slide12

Combustion Chamber

  • The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place.
  • Gasoline and air must be mixed in the correct ratio.
slide13

The Advantages of Methanol - Burning Engines

  • Methanol can run at much higher compression ratios, meaning that you can get more power from the engine on each piston stroke.
  • Methanol provides significant cooling when it evaporates in the cylinder, helping to keep the high-revving, high-compression engine from overheating.
  • Methanol, unlike gasoline, can be extinguished with water if there is a fire. This is an important safety feature.
  • The ignition temperature for methanol (the temperature at which it starts burning) is much higher than that for gasoline, so the risk of an accidental fire is lower.
slide14

A Race Car - Basic Information

  • At 900 hp, it has about two to three times the horsepower of a "high-performance" automotive engine. For example, Corvettes or Vipers might have 350- to 400-horsepower engines.
  • At 15,000 rpm, it runs at about twice the rpm of a normal automotive engine. Compared to a normal engine, an methanol engine has larger pistons and the pistons travel a shorter distance up and down on each stroke.
  • The motor is lighter. This lowers their inertia and is another factor in the high rpm.
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