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Cloud Computing. Dave Elliman. The datacenter is the computer!. Source: NY Times (6/14/2006). Two Key Enterprise Technologies for the Cloud. Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) Allows load sharing and loose coupling and is robust to server failure. Virtualization:

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Cloud computing l.jpg

Cloud Computing

Dave Elliman

G53ELC


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The datacenter is the computer!

Source: NY Times (6/14/2006)


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Two Key Enterprise Technologiesfor the Cloud

  • Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)

    Allows load sharing and loose coupling and is robust to server failure.

  • Virtualization:

    The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources


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A definition

  • Cloud Computing:

    “The provisioning of services in a timely (near instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”


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Requirements…

  • IApplications are International and expect users from anywhere in the world

  • Applications access huge (Petabyte) databases

  • Applications expect to download content rapidly anywhere

  • Applications need to scale with user load without degrading response

  • Applications need to be available 24/7 365 days a year

  • Applications need to be secure and well defended

  • Companies wish to pay only for bandwidth and server time used


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What’s a Petabyte?

  • 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte

  • 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte

  • 1024 Megabyte = 1 GigaByte

  • 1024 Gibabytes = 1 Terabyte

  • 1024 Terabyte = 1 Petabyte

  • Exercise for the student: Write down the number of bytes in a Petabyte as a number


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Petrabyte applications are not unusual nowadays

  • Google believed to processes 30 PB a day

  • eBay has 7 PB of user data

  • Facebook has 36 PB of user data




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Why not just set up your own servers?

  • Lot’s of reasons…

  • Will give an example…


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Suppose you are Forbes.com

  • You offer on-line real time stock market data

  • Why pay for capacity weekends, overnight?

9 AM - 5 PM,

M-F

Rate of Server Accesses

ALL OTHER

TIMES


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Forbes' Solution

  • Host the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud

  • Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night

  • Pay just $0.10* per server per hour

    • * more for higher capacity servers

  • Let Amazon worry about the hardware, the scaling, the local (edge) delivery, the security, the availability, and the backup(?).


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Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next step

  • You don’t have to own the hardware

  • You “rent” it as needed from a cloud

  • There are public clouds

    • e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft Azure, IBM, Sun, and others ...)

  • A company can create a private cloud

    • With more control over security, etc.


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Lower Cost

  • No need to pay for infrastructure up front

  • No need for expensive support staff

  • only pay for what you use

  • Great for start-ups – may even be free


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More Agile

  • It used to take 3 months to set up an application on a cluster of servers

  • Takes half an hour in the cloud

  • Scale up or down (elasticity)


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OK It’s a good idea. How does it work?

  • We already saw how to set up a RESTful web service on the Amazon cloud. It took five minutes.

  • Very easy to serve static web pages in this way

  • Quite simple to store and access data in the cloud as files or databases

  • More tricky to set up large scalable applications, but this is where really big pay-offs are possible.


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How Cloud Computing Works

  • Various providers let you create virtual servers

    • Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card

  • You create virtual servers ("virtualization")

    • Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have

    • It will run on a large server farm located somewhere

    • You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice

    • You can shut down instances in a minute or so

  • They send you a bill for the processor time and comms bandwidth that you use


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Virtualisation is the key technology

  • We will look at how this is done in another lecture


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Worries?

  • How do I pick a provider?

  • Is my data secure?

  • Do I have any control over where my data is moved to?

  • How can I be sure the provider will live up to all those promises?


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(footnote)How come Amazon?

  • It arose out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services

    • (Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved)

    • See reference Amazon Architecture on ELC web page

  • They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product


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Cloud Computing Status

  • Seems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice

  • Numerous providers

    • Amazon EC2 imitators ...

    • Just about every major industry name

      • IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ...

  • Major buzz at industry meetings


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The revolution

  • Rent it instead of build it – pay for what you use

  • Rely on the experts to solve all those worries..

  • There is a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware

    • Use many servers with virtualization

    • Applications organized with MOM

  • Data cached close to delivery point

  • Deployment and monitoring are in-house functions



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