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Avian Influenza and Tajikistan. FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan. Avian Influenza in Tajikistan. Background Risks of Avian Influenza introduction in Tajikistan Mitigating risks of introducing and spreading Avian Influenza virus

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Avian Influenza and Tajikistan

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Avian Influenza in Tajikistan

  • Background

  • Risks of Avian Influenza introduction in Tajikistan

  • Mitigating risks of introducing and spreading Avian Influenza virus

  • Risks of Avian Influenza to humans from poultry products in Tajikistan

  • Measures taken by FAO and SVD

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Background (1)

  • Various species of animals have their “own” strain of influenza virus, including birds and humans

  • Some strains are able to infect several species, but can normally not spread between individuals of these “foreign” species

  • Avian influenza viruses have historically on several occasions mutated and acquired the ability of human-human spread

  • Such viruses caused three major influenza pandemics during the last century, in 1918 (Spanish flu), 1957 (Asian flu) and 1968 (Hong Kong flu).

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Background (2)

  • The H5N1 AI virus have been circulating in poultry since at least 1996

  • Initially infectivity not very high, causing limited disease

  • For last 3 years, found in wild migratory birds

  • N. & SE Asia & Indonesia - wild birds started epidemic, spread through live-bird market chain

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Next steps in Tajikistan - Preparedness

  • Evaluate the potential transmission paths - wild migratory birds contact points wild migratory birds – domestic poultry cross border live bird imports smuggled live birds live bird markets

  • Targeted surveillance at high risk points

  • Diagnosis of suspect AI cases

  • Send AI virus isolates to international reference labs for gene characterization

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Next steps in Tajikistan - Prevention

  • Enhance biosecurity in commercial & small-holder poultry farms

  • Separate wild migratory birds from domestic poultry

  • Enforce hygiene in live bird markets – separate areas for different bird species do not return unsold live birds to farms clean & dry cages, floors, counters, etc

  • Raiseawareness for reporting deaths or disease in poultry & wild birds to SVD

  • SVD write & practice Standard Operating Procedures for AI disease investigation

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Next steps in Tajikistan - Reaction

  • Control outbreak zones by: halting movement of poultry limiting movement of people, good hygiene quarantine domestic birds within gardens stamp out infected & in-contact poultry pay compensation for destroyed poultry clean & depopulate infected zone - 60 days live bird markets – closed temporarily or close 1 day per week for cleaning

  • Consider vaccinating poultry at risk

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Summary of Control Strategies

  • Control by stamping out works in countries with small outbreaks + high surveillance

  • Vaccination enhances success of control & potentially reduces risk to humans

  • Need targeted surveillance based on expected transmission pathways in Tajikistan

  • Manage risks in each production system – smallholder poultry commercial poultry domestic poultry

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Risks of Avian Influenza to humans from poultry products in Tajikistan

  • Consuming poultry meat and eggs frozen meat & clean egg shells = no risk normal cooked meat & eggs = no risk

  • Handling or preparing poultry products

    fresh poultry meat = wash hands, knives & counters with soap and hot water feathers, poultry house dust = low risk poultry manure dust = low risk

  • Buying live poultry in markets aerosols in markets = low risk

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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High Risk Activities to Avoid Tajikistan

  • Higher risk when AI has been diagnosed in the area -

    not the case for Tajikistan!

  • Direct contact with AI infected birds

    - attending cock fights

    - buying from crowded, live bird markets

    - drinking blood from birds

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Measures taken by FAO and SVD (1) Tajikistan

Actions targeting veterinarians:

  • One national seminar and a serious of regional workshops on Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD)

  • Training courses on bird diseases

  • Training course on virology for laboratory veterinarians

  • FAO and SVD staff attending workshop in Pakistan on Participatory Diseases Surveillance (PDS)

  • PDS carried out in RRD, planned for Sugd

  • Next edition of National Veterinary Magazine totally devoted to TAD, including article on how to recognize, and handle, cases of AI

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Measures taken by FAO and SVD (2) Tajikistan

Actions for informing the public of AI:

  • One TV programme

  • One radio programme

  • Printing of 4000 posters ongoing

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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Summary Tajikistan

  • No AI reported in Tajikistan as yet SVD preparedness and targeted surveillance could be enhanced

  • Low risk of poultry in Tajikistan getting AI low concentrations of poultry important to separate wild migratory birds from domestics

  • Low risk of humans in Tajikistan getting AI well cooked and clean products are safe can avoid high risk activities

  • Strengthening SVD and veterinarians surveillance & diagnostic capacity helps protect the public AI is priority today, other diseases tomorrow

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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More information at Tajikistanhttp://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/subjects/en/health/diseases-cards/special_avian.html

Thank you

for your attention

FAO Emergency Coordination Unit Tajikistan


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