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SPECIES INTERACTIONS. ANNOUNCEMENTS. Final Exam is in ONE WEEK: Tues. Dec 20 th 8 – 10 am Last name begins with letter A – L  LH 5 Last name begins with letter M – N  LH 7 We will be checking IDs Bring student ID, pencils & erasure No calculators or hats. ANNOUNCEMENTS.

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announcements
ANNOUNCEMENTS
  • Final Exam is in ONE WEEK:
      • Tues. Dec 20th
      • 8 – 10 am
      • Last name begins with letter A – L LH 5
      • Last name begins with letter M – N  LH 7
          • We will be checking IDs
      • Bring student ID, pencils & erasure
      • No calculators or hats
announcements3
ANNOUNCEMENTS
  • Review sessions for Final Exam:
    • Open to all students irrespective of section
      • Wed Dec 14th by Will & Carlos
          • Begins at 3pm in LH2
      • Sunday Dec 18th by Will & Carlos
          • Begins at 7 pm in LH1
      • Mon Dec 19th by Jennie
          • 11am – noon in BS 004
          • 1 – 2 pm in BS 004
announcements4
ANNOUNCEMENTS
  • Extended Office Hours
      • Monday Dec 19th
      • Noon – 4pm
  • Hints for Final Exam
      • Questions from previous exams will be modified
      • Look for overarching themes
      • As usual, apply what you know. Don’t memorize!
      • Material from last 2 lectures = 25 – 30% of Final Exam
announcements5
ANNOUNCEMENTS
  • Exam 2
  • Exam 3
    • Distribution & Approximate Grade Cutoffs
    • Look for grades on Blackboard by tomorrow
species interactions
SPECIES INTERACTIONS

Populations Do Not Exist in Isolation!

  • Populations are tightly linked to other populations that share the same habitat
species interactions7
SPECIES INTERACTIONS

Types of Interactions Between Species:

  • Neutral relationships (0 0)
  • Commensalisms (+ 0)
  • Mutualism (+ +)
  • Competition (- -)
  • Parasitism (+ -)
  • Predation (+ -)
species interactions commensalism
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMMENSALISM

Commensalism:

  • Relationship directly helps one species without having effect on other species
    • Ex: Birds uses trees as roost site
      • Birds benefit from tree
      • Trees get nothing, but are not harmed
species interactions mutalism
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: MUTALISM

Mutualism:

  • Beneficial interaction between two species
      • Co-exploitation (not altruism)
  • Obligatory Mutualism:
      • Species can’t grow/reproduce without the other
slide10

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: MUTALISM

  • Yucca Plant and Yucca Moth:
    • Plant only pollinated by yucca moth
    • Moth larva can only grow in yucca plant
slide11

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: MUTALISM

Mutualism between fish

species interactions competition
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Interspecific Competition:

  • Competition across species
    • Occurs when niches overlap
          • Niche = a set of habitat requirements
          • Two species struggle for same resources
    • Negatively impacts both species
    • Two outcomes:
          • Coexistence
          • Competitive Exclusion
species interactions competition13
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Intraspecific Competition:

  • Competition between members of the same species
species interactions competition14
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Competitive Exclusion:

  • Occurs when niches overlap completely
      • Fierce competition for overlapping resources
  • One species drives another towards extinction
slide15

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

One Species Eats Seeds of One Size Range

Number consumed

Seed size

slide16

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Complete Niche Overlap

Species 1: Strong competitor

Species 2: Weak competitor,

Driven to extinction

Number consumed

Seed size

species interactions competition17
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Coexistence:

  • Occurs if niches do not overlap completely
        • May lead to suppressed growth and/or reproduction
  • Species partition/share available resources
        • Use same resource in diff ways or at diff times
slide18

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Partial Niche Overlap: competition for seeds of intermediate size

Species 2

Species 1

Number consumed

Realized

Niche

Seed size

slide19

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Competition occurs when organisms compete for the same resources.

These trees are competing for nitrogen and other nutrients.

slide20

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Competition occurs when individuals occupy space and prevent access to resources by other individuals. The space preempted by these barnacles is unavailable to competitors.

slide21

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Competition occurs when an organism grows over another, blocking access to resources. This large fern has overgrown other individuals and is shading them.

slide22

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Competition occurs when one species produces toxins that negatively affect another. Note how few plants are growing under these Salvia shrubs.

slide23

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Competition occurs when mobile organisms protect feeding or breeding territory. These red-winged blackbirds are displaying to each other at a territorial boundary.

slide24

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

Competition occurs when organisms interfere with each other’s access to specific resources. Here, spotted hyenas and vultures fight over a kill.

species interactions parasitism
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

Parasitism:

  • One organism drains nutrients from another, while living on or within it
    • Beneficial to parasite
    • Negative effect on host organism
          • Weaken host  sterility, decreased fecundity
          • Genetic effects
          • Sometimes death
slide26

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

Deformed frog limbs due to

parasitic infection by Trematodes

Adult roundworms in the

intestine of a pig

slide27

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

Blood fluke

in the intestine

of a human

833 µm

species interactions parasitism28
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

Social Parasites:

  • Manipulate social behavior of another species
  • Ex: Cuckoo Bird
      • Females lay eggs in another species nest
      • Cuckoo hatchlings are usually first to emerge
      • Ejects other eggs from nest
      • Demands food
species interactions predation
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Predator – Prey Interactions:

  • Predator:
  • Animals that feed on other living
  • organisms
  • Do NOT take residence in or on
  • prey
  • Prey:
  • Targets of predators
  • Usually killed for food
  • Have wide array of mechanisms
  • to defend against predation
slide33

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Predators can regulate prey populations and/or reducethem below carrying capacity

BABOON PREY POPULATION

LEOPARD PREDATOR POPULATION

slide34

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Canadian lynx & Snowshoe Hare

species interactions predation35
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Co evolution of Predator and Prey Has Resulted in

Incredible Adaptations:

  • Camouflage
  • Mimicry
  • Warning Coloration
  • Predator Responses
species interactions predation36
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Camouflage:

  • A method to escape detection
      • Prey blends in with surroundings
        • Morphological adaptations
        • Patterning
        • Coloration
        • Behavior
slide37

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

PREY CAMOUFLAGE

LEAST

BITTERN

LOOKS

LIKE

REEDS

DESERT PLANT LOOKS LIKE ROCK

CATERPILLAR LOOKS LIKE DROPPINGS

species interactions predation39
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Mimicry:

  • Prey organism deceives predators
    • Copy form and/or behavior of another species
      • Must resemble dangerous or unpalatable species
slide40

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

MIMICRY

INEDIBLE BUTTERFLY

(LEFT) IS A MODEL FOR ITS EDIBLE MIMIC (RIGHT)

STINGING YELLOWJACKET (LEFT) IS MODEL FOR NONSTINGING and EDIBLE INSECTS (RIGHT)

species interactions predation42
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Warning Coloration:

  • Prey (usually toxic) sends warning signal

to predators

      • Bright colors and/or conspicuous patterns
      • Prey makes little or no effort to conceal its presence
      • Predators associate distinctive pattern/coloring with foul taste or poison

Poison Dart Frog

species interactions predation43
SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

Methods to Counter Prey Defense:

  • Predators:
    • Camouflage
    • Clever ways of avoiding repellants
slide44

SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

PREDATOR RESPONSE:

GRASSHOPPER

MICE PLUNGECHEMICAL-

SPRAYING END OF BEETLE INTO THE GROUND BEFORE EATING IT

PRAYING MANTIS (PREDATOR)

CAMOFLAGUED IN PLANT

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