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SPECIES INTERACTIONS. ANNOUNCEMENTS. Final Exam is in ONE WEEK: Tues. Dec 20 th 8 – 10 am Last name begins with letter A – L  LH 5 Last name begins with letter M – N  LH 7 We will be checking IDs Bring student ID, pencils & erasure No calculators or hats. ANNOUNCEMENTS.

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SPECIES INTERACTIONS

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SPECIES INTERACTIONS


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ANNOUNCEMENTS

  • Final Exam is in ONE WEEK:

    • Tues. Dec 20th

    • 8 – 10 am

    • Last name begins with letter A – L LH 5

    • Last name begins with letter M – N  LH 7

      • We will be checking IDs

  • Bring student ID, pencils & erasure

  • No calculators or hats


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ANNOUNCEMENTS

  • Review sessions for Final Exam:

    • Open to all students irrespective of section

      • Wed Dec 14th by Will & Carlos

        • Begins at 3pm in LH2

    • Sunday Dec 18th by Will & Carlos

      • Begins at 7 pm in LH1

  • Mon Dec 19th by Jennie

    • 11am – noon in BS 004

    • 1 – 2 pm in BS 004


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ANNOUNCEMENTS

  • Extended Office Hours

    • Monday Dec 19th

    • Noon – 4pm

  • Hints for Final Exam

    • Questions from previous exams will be modified

    • Look for overarching themes

    • As usual, apply what you know. Don’t memorize!

    • Material from last 2 lectures = 25 – 30% of Final Exam


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    ANNOUNCEMENTS

    • Exam 2

    • Exam 3

      • Distribution & Approximate Grade Cutoffs

      • Look for grades on Blackboard by tomorrow


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS

    Populations Do Not Exist in Isolation!

    • Populations are tightly linked to other populations that share the same habitat


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS

    Types of Interactions Between Species:

    • Neutral relationships (0 0)

    • Commensalisms (+ 0)

    • Mutualism (+ +)

    • Competition (- -)

    • Parasitism (+ -)

    • Predation (+ -)


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMMENSALISM

    Commensalism:

    • Relationship directly helps one species without having effect on other species

      • Ex: Birds uses trees as roost site

        • Birds benefit from tree

        • Trees get nothing, but are not harmed


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: MUTALISM

    Mutualism:

    • Beneficial interaction between two species

      • Co-exploitation (not altruism)

  • Obligatory Mutualism:

    • Species can’t grow/reproduce without the other


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: MUTALISM

    • Yucca Plant and Yucca Moth:

      • Plant only pollinated by yucca moth

      • Moth larva can only grow in yucca plant


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: MUTALISM

    Mutualism between fish


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Interspecific Competition:

    • Competition across species

      • Occurs when niches overlap

        • Niche = a set of habitat requirements

        • Two species struggle for same resources

  • Negatively impacts both species

  • Two outcomes:

    • Coexistence

    • Competitive Exclusion


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Intraspecific Competition:

    • Competition between members of the same species


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Competitive Exclusion:

    • Occurs when niches overlap completely

      • Fierce competition for overlapping resources

  • One species drives another towards extinction


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    One Species Eats Seeds of One Size Range

    Number consumed

    Seed size


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Complete Niche Overlap

    Species 1: Strong competitor

    Species 2: Weak competitor,

    Driven to extinction

    Number consumed

    Seed size


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Coexistence:

    • Occurs if niches do not overlap completely

      • May lead to suppressed growth and/or reproduction

  • Species partition/share available resources

    • Use same resource in diff ways or at diff times


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Partial Niche Overlap: competition for seeds of intermediate size

    Species 2

    Species 1

    Number consumed

    Realized

    Niche

    Seed size


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Competition occurs when organisms compete for the same resources.

    These trees are competing for nitrogen and other nutrients.


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Competition occurs when individuals occupy space and prevent access to resources by other individuals. The space preempted by these barnacles is unavailable to competitors.


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Competition occurs when an organism grows over another, blocking access to resources. This large fern has overgrown other individuals and is shading them.


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Competition occurs when one species produces toxins that negatively affect another. Note how few plants are growing under these Salvia shrubs.


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Competition occurs when mobile organisms protect feeding or breeding territory. These red-winged blackbirds are displaying to each other at a territorial boundary.


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: COMPETITION

    Competition occurs when organisms interfere with each other’s access to specific resources. Here, spotted hyenas and vultures fight over a kill.


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

    Parasitism:

    • One organism drains nutrients from another, while living on or within it

      • Beneficial to parasite

      • Negative effect on host organism

        • Weaken host  sterility, decreased fecundity

        • Genetic effects

        • Sometimes death


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

    Deformed frog limbs due to

    parasitic infection by Trematodes

    Adult roundworms in the

    intestine of a pig


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

    Blood fluke

    in the intestine

    of a human

    833 µm


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PARASITISM

    Social Parasites:

    • Manipulate social behavior of another species

    • Ex: Cuckoo Bird

      • Females lay eggs in another species nest

      • Cuckoo hatchlings are usually first to emerge

      • Ejects other eggs from nest

      • Demands food


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Predator – Prey Interactions:

    • Predator:

    • Animals that feed on other living

    • organisms

    • Do NOT take residence in or on

    • prey

    • Prey:

    • Targets of predators

    • Usually killed for food

    • Have wide array of mechanisms

    • to defend against predation


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Predators can regulate prey populations and/or reducethem below carrying capacity

    BABOON PREY POPULATION

    LEOPARD PREDATOR POPULATION


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Canadian lynx & Snowshoe Hare


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Co evolution of Predator and Prey Has Resulted in

    Incredible Adaptations:

    • Camouflage

    • Mimicry

    • Warning Coloration

    • Predator Responses


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Camouflage:

    • A method to escape detection

      • Prey blends in with surroundings

        • Morphological adaptations

        • Patterning

        • Coloration

        • Behavior


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    PREY CAMOUFLAGE

    LEAST

    BITTERN

    LOOKS

    LIKE

    REEDS

    DESERT PLANT LOOKS LIKE ROCK

    CATERPILLAR LOOKS LIKE DROPPINGS


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    PREY CAMOUFLAGE


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Mimicry:

    • Prey organism deceives predators

      • Copy form and/or behavior of another species

        • Must resemble dangerous or unpalatable species


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    MIMICRY

    INEDIBLE BUTTERFLY

    (LEFT) IS A MODEL FOR ITS EDIBLE MIMIC (RIGHT)

    STINGING YELLOWJACKET (LEFT) IS MODEL FOR NONSTINGING and EDIBLE INSECTS (RIGHT)


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    MIMICRY


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Warning Coloration:

    • Prey (usually toxic) sends warning signal

      to predators

      • Bright colors and/or conspicuous patterns

      • Prey makes little or no effort to conceal its presence

      • Predators associate distinctive pattern/coloring with foul taste or poison

    Poison Dart Frog


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    Methods to Counter Prey Defense:

    • Predators:

      • Camouflage

      • Clever ways of avoiding repellants


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    SPECIES INTERACTIONS: PREDATION

    PREDATOR RESPONSE:

    GRASSHOPPER

    MICE PLUNGECHEMICAL-

    SPRAYING END OF BEETLE INTO THE GROUND BEFORE EATING IT

    PRAYING MANTIS (PREDATOR)

    CAMOFLAGUED IN PLANT


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