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AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN KWINANA. AIR QUALITY MANGEMENT IN KWINANA. Heavy Metals. Air Quality Management Presentation Series. This presentation is the last in a series of three presentations on Air Quality Management in Kwinana. Air Quality Management Presentation Series.

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presenter karla hinkley environmental engineer

Air Quality Management Presentation Series

Presenter: Karla Hinkley Environmental Engineer

This presentation series has been prepared by ENVIRON Australia Pty Ltd on behalf of the Kwinana Industries Council.

ENVIRON Australia Pty LtdSuite 3, Level 2, 200 Adelaide TerraceEast Perth, Western Australia, 6004Tel: 9225 [email protected]

slide5

Air Quality Management Presentation Series

  • The aim of the presentation series is to inform the local community about the measures taken by industry to minimise air quality impacts in the Kwinana area
  • The complete presentation series will be posted on the Kwinana Industries Council website www.kic.org.au
slide7

Kwinana Industry Products

  • Kwinana industry produce a diverse range of products for local and international markets
each presentation in the series will cover the following topics

Air Quality Management Presentation Series

Each presentation in the series will cover the following topics:
  • How are emissions generated?
  • How much is emitted by Kwinana industry?
  • How are emissions managed?
  • What monitoring is conducted?
slide9

Air Quality Management Presentation Series

  • This presentation focuses on heavy metal air pollutants.
  • In very small amounts, many metals are necessary to support life, however in larger amounts they can cause adverse health effects.
  • Heavy metals can build up in biological systems (i.e. bioaccumulate) and become a significant health hazard.
  • Certain heavy metals have been found to cause cancer in humans
slide10

Material Handling and Storage

How are emissions generated?

Combustion of Fossil Fuels

  • Heavy metals emissions are produced by Kwinana industry as an unintended by-product of manufacturing processes, typically as a result of:
    • combustion of fossil fuels
    • handling and storage of metal bearing ores and/or products
    • use of catalysts that contain metals
  • Amount of heavy metals produced depends on:
    • metal content of fuel or metal bearing materials
    • amount of dust generated from materials handling and storage; which in turn is dependant on material properties (such as moisture content) and meteorological conditions (in the case of windblown sources)
slide11

Air Quality Management Presentation Series

  • Emissions information for Kwinana industry obtained from Australia’s National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) database for 2009
  • The NPI contains emissions information on 93 substances, deemed important due to their possible effect on human health and the environment
  • A number of the substances listed on the NPI database are heavy metals
  • Facility operators determine their emissions each year, and government agencies periodically estimate diffuse emissions such as from motor vehicles and households
  • Data is freely accessible via the website www.npi.gov.au
slide12

Major source

+ 20% of Kwinana industry emissions

Minor source

5% - 20% of Kwinana industry emissions

Very minor source

How are emissions generated?

Industry Sources of Heavy Metal Emissions in Kwinana

(1) “Total Heavy Metals” include the sum of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (III), chromium (VI), cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, zinc, and their compounds

Data sourced from National Pollutant Inventory database, 2009 reporting period.

slide13

How much is emitted by Kwinana industry?

  • NPI data for 2009 shows that emissions to air from Kwinana Industry makes a very small contribution to the State’s total industrial emissions of heavy metals:
    • 0.3% overall
    • less than 15% when analysed on an individual compound basis

Data sourced from National Pollutant Inventory database, 2009 reporting period.

slide14

Who much is emitted by Kwinana industry?

  • The previous presentations in the series have included an analysis of the NPI data to compare the quantity of emissions released into the Perth Airshed by Kwinana Industry to large domestic sources, including motor vehicles and domestic solid fuel burning (e.g. wood heaters)
  • Such analysis has not been possible for heavy metals, as the emission inventory for the Perth Airshed:
    • is not comprehensive for heavy metals
    • is out-of-date with respect to lead emissions from motor vehicles, as it was last up-dated for 1998/99 fiscal year, whilst leaded petrol was phased out in Western Australia by the start of 2000
slide15

How are emissions managed?

  • Kwinana Industry manage their emissions of heavy metals by:
      • choice of fuel
      • minimising dust generated from material handling and storage
      • pollution control equipment
slide16

How are emissions managed?

  • A selection of case studies on how emissions are managed by Kwinana industry are presented in the following slides:
      • Nickel West Kwinana
      • BP Refinery Kwinana
slide18

How are emissions managed?

  • Particulate emissions control from the Catalytic Cracker at BP’s Kwinana Refinery has undergone two major upgrades; the first upgrade occurred in 1992, and the second in 2004.
  • Overall these upgrades have resulted in up to a ten fold decrease in the concentration of particulate emissions from the Catalytic Cracker, and associated reduction in metal emissions.
slide19

How are emissions managed?

  • BP products are required to comply with the National Fuel Quality Standards.
  • Leaded petrol was phased out in Western Australia by the start of 2000.
  • This has reduced impacts of lead emissions from motor vehicles, as well as reduced lead emissions associated with fugitive emissions from BP’s Kwinana Refinery.

Data sourced from Department of Environment and Conservation.

slide20

What monitoring is conducted?

  • Source emission monitoring is conducted by Kwinana industry as per Environmental Licence conditions, and to assist with NPI reporting.
  • Ambient air quality monitoring for heavy metals is conducted on a campaign basis by the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) in Western Australia.
  • The DEC conducted ambient air quality monitoring of heavy metals in Kwinana as part of the Background Air Quality (Air Toxics) Study.
slide21

What monitoring is conducted?

Data sourced from Department of Environment and Conservation.

slide22

What monitoring is conducted?

  • Results of ambient air quality monitoring of heavy metals in Hope Valley show:
      • concentrations in the ambient air were typically found to be:
        • higher in Hope Valley than the Duncraig suburban monitoring site
        • lower in Hope Valley than the Perth CBD monitoring site
      • notable exceptions occurred for copper and nickel, where higher concentrations were measured in Hope Valley compared to the other Perth metropolitan monitoring sites (i.e. Duncraig and Perth CBD)
      • ambient levels of all metals (including copper and nickel) measured in Hope Valley are well below the relevant standards adopted by the DEC for the Background Air Quality (Air Toxics) Study
slide23

What monitoring is conducted?

Summary Results of Heavy Metal Monitoring in Hope Valley

“WHO” World Health Organisation

“NEPC” National Environment Protection Council

“OAQC” Ontario Ministry of the Environment Ambient Air Quality Criteria

“TCEQ” Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

Standards as adopted by the Department of Environment and Conservation for the Background Air Quality (Air Toxics) Study

slide24

What monitoring is conducted?

  • Results of ambient air quality monitoring of heavy metals in Hope Valley show:
      • ambient levels comfortably comply with the relevant standards adopted by the DEC for the Background Air Quality (Air Toxics) Study
      • annual average concentrations of manganese, nickel and chromium most closely approach the relevant standards, but are still less than half of the standard
      • in the case of chromium, the measured annual average concentration of total chromium is compared to a standard which is specific to hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) (a carcinogenic form of chromium), and therefore provides a conservative (i.e. health protective) assessment of potential health impact
slide25

What monitoring is conducted?

  • How can I check ambient air quality in my area?
  • Further monitoring results for heavy metals are available on the Department of Environment and Conservation website www.dec.gov.au
slide26

Air Quality Management Presentation Series

  • Each of the presentations in the series will be posted on the Kwinana Industries Council website www.kic.org.au after being presented at the C&IF meeting.
  • Fact Sheets are also being prepared which provide further detail on the topics covered in this presentation series.
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