Chemical hydride based pem fuel cells for for portable power applications
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Shailesh A. Shah Marketing Director, Military. Joint Services Power Expo May 2-5, 2005. Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications. Millennium Cell, Inc. One Industrial Way West, Eatontown, NJ 07724 [email protected] 732-544-5739. Outline.

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Chemical hydride based pem fuel cells for for portable power applications l.jpg

Shailesh A. Shah

Marketing Director, Military

Joint Services Power Expo

May 2-5, 2005

Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications

Millennium Cell, Inc.

One Industrial Way West, Eatontown, NJ 07724

[email protected]


Outline l.jpg

  • Millennium Cell (MCEL) – company overview

  • Hydrogen storage/generation via sodium borohydride

    • Hydrogen on Demand® Technology

  • Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison

  • Prototype Development

  • P1 Cartridge Test Results

  • Millennium cell company overview l.jpg
    Millennium Cell Company Overview

    • We are developers of hydrogen energy systems for use primarily in portable electronics devices for consumer, military, medical, and industrial markets.

      • 25 patents issued to date

      • Over 40 patent applications submitted and still pending

  • Public offering in August 2000 (Nasdaq: MCEL), currently 40 people working in Eatontown, NJ and Washington DC.

    • 23 in technical organization;

    • 9 Ph.D.s company wide

      Announced relationships:

  • Hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride sbh hydrogen on demand reaction l.jpg
    Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (SBH)Hydrogen on Demand® Reaction

    NaBH4 (aq) + 2 H2O  4 H2 + NaBO2 (aq) + heat


    An energy-dense water-based chemical hydride fuel

    Proprietary catalyst induces rapid H2 production

    High purity humidified H2

    Borate can be recycled into NaBH4 or can be disposed of

    Exothermic reaction requires no heat input

    • Hydrogen is generated in a controllable, heat-releasing reaction

    • Fuel is an ambient pressure, room-temperature, non-flammable liquid

    • Hydrogen generated via this processis of high purity (no carbon monoxide or sulfur) and is humidified (heat generates some water vapor)

    • U.S. Patent 6,534,033: “System for Hydrogen Generation”

    Hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride nabh 4 schematic of hydrogen on demand technology l.jpg
    Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4)Schematic of Hydrogen on Demand® Technology

    1. Borohydride Fuel is pumped or moved from a tank through a chamber containing MCEL’s proprietary catalyst.

    2. The fuel is converted into pure hydrogen, water vapor, and borate (NaBO2).

    3. The temperature and humidity of the hydrogen stream are adjustable. Humidified hydrogen is sent to the fuel cell.

    4. The fuel cell creates power and water. This water can be recycled within the system. Allows for higher fuel concentrations.

    Gas/Liquid Separator

    Fuel Pump

    Catalyst Reactor

    Hydrogen + Water Vapor

    Fuel tank: NaBH4 solution


    Discharged fuel area: NaBO2

    Water from Fuel Cell

    Borate (NaBO2)



    Hydrogen + Water Vapor

    Coolant Loop (optional)

    Fuel Cell

    Pure Humidified H2

    Heat Exchanger

    Electric Power

    Oxygen from Air

    Gravimetric energy density comparison l.jpg
    Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison

    • Zn/Air, today 300 Wh/kg

    • Li/SO2, today 170 Wh/kg

    • Li-Ion, today 110 Wh/kg

    • DMFC

      • fuel only, today (15%) 900 Wh/kg

      • fuel only, projected (25%) 1500 Wh/kg

    • RMFC (0.7 V fuel cell, 75% conversion)

      • fuel only (64%), projected 1440 Wh/kg

    • HOD/PEM (0.7 V fuel cell, 95% conversion)

      • Practical dry fuel for shipping, today 3900 Wh/kg

      • Practical fuel only (20%) energy density today 760 Wh/kg

      • Practical fuel only (35%) energy density projected 1330 Wh/kg

    M2 consumer electronics demonstrator prototype l.jpg
    M2 Consumer Electronics Demonstrator Prototype

    Demonstrated at Intel Developers’ Forum, Mar 2005

    • ~135 Wh/L and ~130 Wh/kg fuel system

      • Demonstration prototype – fuel volume non-optimized

      • NBPC scale power (20 W), 3 hr runtime @ 11 W nom

      • 33 Wh scale system, 245 cc

    Protonex p1 full system cartridge attachment l.jpg
    Protonex P1 Full SystemCartridge attachment


    > 350 Wh/L and > 350 Wh/kg complete system

    • 30 W Net Power, >15 Hour Runtime per cartridge

    • 465 Wh net single cartridge only  1.1 L, 1.25 kg

    Energy cartridge interface detail l.jpg
    Energy Cartridge: Interface detail

    7.9 cm

    8.8 cm

    Fuel/borate area

    Electrical Interface

    Air Filter

    Catalyst Reactor

    16.8 cm

    Hydrogen Interface

    Pressure Relief Valve

    Fill Port

    Fuel Pump Interface

    Cartridge testing l.jpg
    Cartridge Testing

    • Fuel Cell Simulator

      • Mimics FC interface

      • Adjusts H2 demand

      • Monitors cartridge metrics

    • Over 250 hours of test

    Cartridge testing start up l.jpg
    Cartridge Testing – Start Up

    • Fuel Cell Simulator Start up ~60 s

    • Fuel Cell System Start up ~20 s

    Cold temperature cartridge operation l.jpg
    Cold Temperature Cartridge Operation

    Operation at 20 °C and 5 °C

    • No change in conversion

    • No change in fuel utilization

    • Startup time increased to ~ 120 s

    Protonex p1 status and p2 technology improvements l.jpg
    Protonex P1 Status and P2 Technology Improvements


    • P1 energy density goal for 72 h/30 W mission: 350 - 380 Wh/kg

    • P2 energy density goal for 72 h/30 W mission: 425 - 500 Wh/kg

      • Packaging efficiency

      • Water recovery

      • Custom components

    • Dry SBH fuel cartridges can be mixed on-site as needed

      • Indefinite storage life

      • Ability to use field water to be studied

      • Substantial energy density increase when shipping dry cartridges

    Slide16 l.jpg

    Fuel Cell Portable Power Systemsfor Military ApplicationsJoint Services Power ExpoMay 2-5, 2005Greg CiprianoVP Marketing & Military Development

    Protonex facts l.jpg
    Protonex Facts


    • Focus on apps where fuel cells make sense

    • Where batteries & IC engines do not work well

    • Design for performance, manufacturability and cost


    • Portable and remote applications

    • High-performance power, 10 – 500 Watts


    • “Best-in-class” power systems vs. alternatives

    • Leading metrics and fieldable costs

    • Functional prototypes exist today

    Power range focus l.jpg

    10 Watt

    1000 Watt

    10,000 Watt

    Power Range Focus

    Battery Curve

    Protonex Fuel

    Cell Curve



    Fuel cells do well here



    IC Engine










    Fuel cell benefits l.jpg
    Fuel Cell Benefits

    • Reduced weight

    • Extended runtimes

    • Reduced size

    • Lower life cycle cost

    • Greater fuel efficiency

    • Reduced emissions

    • Lower noise level

    • Lower heat signature

    VALUE POINTS for Protonex fuel cell based power solutions

    Protonex military activity l.jpg
    Protonex Military Activity

    • Army Research Office

      • Development program for next generation sub-kW stacks, 18 months

    • Army Research Lab

      • Development program for advanced DMFC fuel cell stacks, 2 yrs

    • Air Force Research Lab

      • Dual Use Science & Technology, 18 months

      • BAO kit power system using chemical hydride fuel

    • Naval Research Lab

      • Feasibility demonstrated on UAV power system, ongoing work

    • TARDEC

      • Prototype development for mobile robots

    • SOCOM

      • Silent Auxiliary Power Unit just awarded

    • Military Primes

      • Multiple joint development programs starting and in discussion

    Protonex stack breakthrough l.jpg
    Protonex Stack Breakthrough

    20 W ~ 1992

    20 W ~ 2003

    Protonex stacks best in class l.jpg
    Protonex Stacks = Best-in-Class

    • H2 PEM technology

    • Compact

    • Lightweight

    • Low Cost

    • Robust

    • Reliable

    • Injection Moldable

    • Patents Pending

    3000 Series Family 50-200 Watts

    Protonex Stacks are Highly Durable

    Stack life test 4000 hrs l.jpg
    Stack Life Test 4000 hrs

    • Man portable target system lifetime = 2000 hrs operation, Phase I

    • Degradation corresponds to loss of ~1.5% efficiency at 2000 hours

    Ngen systems l.jpg
    NGen™ Systems

    Fuel Cell Power Systems

    • Fuel Cell Stack

    • Balance of Plant

      • Air, Cooling, Controls

    • Fuel System (HW and fuel)

      • Chemical Hydrides

      • Methanol Reformers

      • H2 or Metal Hydrides

        Protonex Systems are

    • Small & lightweight

    • Efficient & durable

    • Manufacturable

    • Easy to embed in app’s

    30 Watt System Prototype

    Stack superiority and simplicity enable the use of available balance of plant components. Strong systems knowledge and capabilities allow selection, integration and commercialization of best-in-class fuel technologies to deliver complete power systems to applications.

    System testing l.jpg
    System Testing

    Systems tested -10 to 50°C and 1000 hrs to date

    Industry first 30w system l.jpg
    Industry First 30W System

    FIRST integrated chemical hydride fuel cell system

    TODAY: 350-380 Whr/kg and TRL5

    Q4 2005: 425-500 Whr/kg and TRL6-7

    72 hour mission @ 30Watts continuous

    Protonex value proposition l.jpg
    Protonex Value Proposition

    NEED: 30 watts continuous for 72hr mission

    Protonex Fuel Cell System

    Systems required: 1

    Cartridges required: 6

    Total weight: 7.9 lbs

    Total volume: 4.3 liters

    Cost/mission: $433

    BA5590 Batteries (today)

    Units required: 13

    Total weight: 29.3 lbs

    Total volume: 11.2 liters

    Cost/mission: $1,040

    Savings: 60% on cost 62% on size 73% on weight

    Impact: Significantly Decreased Logistics Burden

    Life cycle cost details l.jpg
    Life Cycle Cost Details

    • Lower life cycle cost vs. batteries

      • Practical capital costs <$1500 @ 5K units

        • Low cost COTS and FC components

        • Design for manufacture focus

        • Highly durable, low maintenance

        • Tested 4,000 hrs (10,000 hrs possible)

      • Low cost fuel cartridges

        • Chemical hydride is safe, non-flammable

        • Recycle cartridges for training

        • Discard cartridges for battle

    Strategic partners l.jpg
    Strategic Partners

    • Parker Hannifin – volume mfg of Protonex systems and key components (60 mfg. plants worldwide)

    • Millennium Cell – co-develop fuel cartridge w/Protonex

    • Dow – volume mfg of Protonex fuel cartridges

    Recent milestones l.jpg
    Recent Milestones

    • System prototypes built from 10 to 500W

    • Over 600 stacks built

    • Life testing over 4,000 hours

    • Demonstrated integrated fueling system

    • Multiple joint development projects

    • Several high profile military program awards

    • Military evaluations in progress

    • New 12,000 sq.ft. facility

    • 9 patents pending

    Summary our strengths l.jpg
    Summary - Our Strengths

    • “Best in Class” fuel cell power systems for OEM’s

      • Leading product metrics

      • Low system cost points enabling adoption

    • Strong customer focus

    • Product oriented, not just R&D

    • NGen™ patent pending technology

    • Comprehensive suite of strategic partners

    • Strong military activity & support

    • Strong private venture funding (matching $)

    • History of delivering to commitments

    Contact information l.jpg
    Contact Information

    Greg Cipriano

    VP Marketing & Military Development

    [email protected]

    508.490.9960 x208

    Protonex Technology Corporation

    153 Northboro Road

    Southborough, MA 01772