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Treating School-Age Children who Stutter: Objectives and Activities . Craig E. Coleman, M.A. & Rebecca L. Roccon, M.S. Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh Amy L. Zerhusen, M.S. Children’s Hospital of Cincinnati. Common Misconceptions. Only number of disfluencies can be measured

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treating school age children who stutter objectives and activities

Treating School-Age Children who Stutter: Objectives and Activities

Craig E. Coleman, M.A. & Rebecca L. Roccon, M.S.

Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh

Amy L. Zerhusen, M.S.

Children’s Hospital of Cincinnati

common misconceptions
Common Misconceptions
  • Only number of disfluencies can be measured
  • Reduction of disfluencies is the only goal
  • Criteria used in articulation/phonology can be applied to stuttering (80% fluent speech)
  • Affective responses will improve on their own, as the child’s fluency improves
appropriate goals
Appropriate Goals
  • Goals should address all aspects of the disorder, not just the number of disfluencies
  • Goals should be geared toward increasing the overall communication skills of the person who stutters
    • Is it better to speak freely and stutter or avoid situations/words that may be problematic?
  • Target the “quantity” AND “quality” of stuttering
  • Goals should be individualized
goals to address education
Goals to Address Education
  • Children need to be educated about stuttering (Empowerment)
  • Education helps the child deal with stuttering long-term rather than getting a “quick fix”
  • Helps the child teach others, such as their peers, about stuttering
goals to address quality of stuttering
Goals to Address “Quality” of Stuttering
  • These goals should target decreased physical tension during stuttering
  • Kids can learn that they sometimes can’t control “if” they stutter, but they can control “how” they stutter
  • Goals here should also target reduction of secondary behaviors
  • These are often stuttering modification techniques
goals to address quantity of stuttering
Goals to Address “Quantity” of Stuttering
  • These goals are speech modification techniques
  • They target reduction of the number of disfluencies
  • Important to note that “quantity” and “quality” are not exclusive goals-one often ties in with the other
  • Goals should be viewed in terms of reduction, not how often children can speak fluently
goals for targeting overall communication
Goals for Targeting Overall Communication
  • These are the most important goals because they target communication
  • Helping the child become a more effective communicator is the primary goal of treatment
  • Goals should heavily target avoidance or negative reactions to stuttering
getting to know your patient
Getting to know your patient
  • Interests
  • Motivation
  • Family dynamics
understanding their needs
Understanding their needs
  • Is fluency their number one priority?
  • Do they have other medical diagnosis?
fluency treatment activities
Fluency Treatment Activities
  • Don’t Break the Ice
  • Fluency Olympics
  • Fluency Slogan
don t break the ice
Don’t Break the ice
  • Pictures taped on top of the ice cubes
  • Take turns giving directions
  • Use fluency shaping: Easy relaxed speech
  • Use stuttering modification: Pseudostutter
fluency olympics
Fluency Olympics
  • “Stations” around your therapy room
  • One station outside of the therapy room
  • Varying levels of fluency shaping and stuttering modification tasks
  • Child leaves the room to complete one station
fluency slogan
Fluency Slogan
  • Adopted VISA/MASTERCARD slogan
  • “One hour of speech therapy, $130; asking your parents to order dinner for you, getting the sandwich that you hate; feeling good about stuttering, priceless.”
fluency slogan14
Fluency Slogan
  • Brainstorm-How fluency affects the child’s life
  • Develop own fluency slogans
  • Helps to desensitize, lessen negative thoughts about stuttering
around the world
Around the World
  • Child is given an atlas
  • Child picks a location
  • Child describes location (fact or fictional)
    • Climate
    • Geography
    • Planning a trip to the location
example
Example
  • Jamaica
    • Climate:
      • hot, partly cloudy (e.g. 88o F / 31o C)
    • Geography:
      • Jamaica is dominated by mountains, mostly covered with lush, green forests. Blue Mountain is the highest point, at 7,402 feet.
    • Planning a Vacation
      • 7 day tour of white beaches, enjoy local Reggae music, culture, and food
therapy targets
Speech Modification

Climate

Easy starts (at sentence level)

Geography

Pausing and phrasing (e.g. There are / many mountains/ in Colorado)

Vacation

Target easy starts and pausing/phrasing at conversational speech level

Stuttering Modification

Climate

Pull-outs and cancellations at the word level (e.g. cold)

Geography

Target at sentence level

Vacation

Target at conversational speech level

Therapy Targets
other therapy targets
Other Therapy Targets
  • Purposeful Stuttering
    • Climate
      • Prolongations
    • Geography
      • Repetitions
    • Vacation
      • Blocks
movie review
Movie Review
  • Child and clinician watch stuttering movie/clip
  • Clinician provides child with movie review worksheet
  • Child and clinician discuss the worksheet following the movie
movie review20
Movie Review
  • 1.What did you like the most about the movie?
  • 2.What did you like the least about the movie?
  • 3.Were there any comments made by the speakers that you could relate to?
  • 4.Have you ever been teased about your stuttering?
  • If so, what did you say in response?
  • 5.If you have never been teased about your stuttering, what might you say if you were?
  • 6.How much do you know about stuttering?
    • 7.List 2 things you know about stuttering.
    • 8.List 2 things you would like to know about stuttering.
therapy targets21
Therapy Targets
  • Questions 1 & 2
    • Target speech modification (e.g. easy starts) or stuttering modification (e.g. cancellations) in responses
  • Questions 3, 4, & 5
    • Target reactions to stuttering (e.g. feelings and emotions towards stuttering and responses to teasing)
slide22
Questions 6, 7, & 8
    • Target knowledge of stuttering (e.g. facts and questions related to stuttering)
name that category
Name That Category
  • Clinician identifies category and child identifies members of that category
    • E.g. Things with wheels
      • Cars, bus, motorcycle
  • Activity can be reversed where the clinician provides the members of the category and the child then identifies the category
example24
Example
  • Things that are round
    • Ball
    • World
    • CD
  • Things that are soft
    • Pillow
    • Stuffed animal
    • Clothing
  • Things that are round and soft
    • Cotton ball
    • Foam ball
    • Ear muffs
stuttering language
Stuttering & Language
  • Excellent activity for those children with co-occurring language deficits
    • Provides opportunities to practice stuttering modification or speech modification strategies across all levels (e.g. word, phrase, conversational)
    • Provides opportunities to address word finding or language formulation deficits
therapy targets26
Speech Modification

Clinician provides the members of the category

Child identifies category, as well as, describes how the members are related

Pausing/phrasing at the phrase and/or conversational level

Stuttering Modification

Child identifies member of the category

Cancellations or pull outs at the single word level

Therapy Targets
the great debate
The Great Debate
  • Have your students participate in debates with their peers--or with you
  • You can pretend that you are debating with the child to see who would make a better Class President of their school
slide28
The “winner” of the debate is decided by a points system, which rewards one point for each of the following:
    • appropriate eye contact
    • speech modification or stuttering modification strategies (e.g., easy starts, pausing and phrasing, or even voluntarystuttering)
    • the content of the response.
slide29
Each participant in the debate is given their own turn to answer questions. This gives them a chance to talk without being interrupted. In addition to allowing the child to work on several objectives in a natural context, this activity also promotes an awareness of time pressure and turn-taking
pick your team
Pick Your Team
  • Children pick five to six players from professional sports teams that they want to include on their team
  • They get to select their team name and make uniforms
  • Following the selection of players, the child is told to pretend that each person on his team now stutters
slide31
The child must come up with a list of team “rules” to facilitate communication on a team of players who stutter
  • Helps children verbalize their beliefs about stuttering
  • Helps them learn appropriate behavior when interacting with those who stutter
sample team rules
Sample Team Rules
  • Don’t tease others who are stuttering
  • If someone is teasing you, tell a coach
  • Use your speech tools
  • Maintain eye contact
  • Say what you want, even if you stutter
  • Have team meetings to learn about stuttering
  • Help people on the team if they are being teased by someone else
stuttering football
Stuttering Football
  • Helps children learn the facts about stuttering
  • Children can play against others who stutter or against their parents
slide34
Each player starts at the goal line and tries to make it 100 yards to the other end zone to score
  • Each person takes turns selecting the number of yards they want to go for.
  • The higher number of yards, the harder the question they are asked by their opponents!
slide35
If they get the question right, they get to move up that many yards
  • If they get the question wrong, they do not advance and the other team gets their turn!
  • You can use this activity with a group of kids by dividing them into teams
  • They can discuss the questions they will ask (and determine how much each question is worth)
time to share
Time to Share…
  • What are some activities that you have found helpful with children who stutter?
  • Are there questions about specific cases?
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