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monotremes. marsupials. egg layers. viviparous with pouch. 6 species. 250 species. Class Mammalia. placentals. placental viviparity. 3,800 species (17 orders). “ Age of mammals”- beginning of Tertiary period- 70 mya

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monotremes

marsupials

egg layers

viviparous with pouch

6 species

250 species

Class Mammalia

placentals

placental viviparity

3,800 species (17 orders)


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  • Age of mammals”- beginning of Tertiary period- 70 mya

    • First mammals small with delicate skeletons, acute senses and possibly nocturnal


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Characteristics

  • Hair or fur called pelage

    • Keratinized derivative of epidermis

    • Periodically molted

    • Insulating layer

    • Important to sense of touch

    • Most have claws, nails or hooves


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  • Glands

    • Sebaceous- oil

    • Sudoriferous- sweat

    • Scent or musk- pheromones

    • Mammary (functional in females)- milk

      • Monotremes- no nipples

sebaceous

sudoriferous

mammary

musk


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  • Skull and teeth

    • Single articulation of jaw bone

    • 3 middle ear ossicles

    • More extensive secondary palate- can chew and breathe

    • Specialized teeth set into sockets of jaw

      • Most two sets- deciduous and permanent

      • Dental formula to identify

      • Types of teeth based on diet


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  • Skeleton and muscles

    • Most have 7 cervical vertebrae

    • Trunk divided into thoracic and abdominal cavities by diaphragm

    • Skeleton bears body weight- muscles concentrated in upper appendages


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  • Nutrition and digestion

    • Specialized to diet

      • Some have cecum- fermentation pouch (rodents)

      • Some ruminants- 4 stomach chambers (cows)


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  • Circulation and gas exchange

    • 4 chambered heart

    • Placental mammals exchange nutrients from maternal to fetal blood

    • High metabolic rate

    • Efficient lungs


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  • Warm blooded

    -heat production by shivering and brown fat

    -heat reduction through ears, tails, panting, burrowing or finding shade



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  • Nervous system

    • Complex- enlarged cerebral cortex

    • Acute senses- touch, smell, auditory, vision (most not color)


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  • Excretion

    • Metanephric kidneys excrete urea (more water loss)


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  • Reproduction

    • Most have cycles (ova mature)- hormone regulated

      • Estrus (“heat”)

      • Some induced cycles (menstrual)


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  • Behavior

    • Complex- often visual

    • Pheromones and marking

    • Grooming

    • Territoriality


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hedgehogs

moles

Order Insectivora

(third largest)

shrews

tenrecs


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Order Chiroptera

bats

(second largest)





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Order Rodentia

(largest)








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largest colonies

largest rodent

capybara

prairie dogs

can kill snakes

can roll in ball

mongoose

pangolin


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highest altitude

"man of the forest"

yak

orangutan

largest monkey

largest herds

mandrill

springbok


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