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Class Mammalia

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monotremes. marsupials. egg layers. viviparous with pouch. 6 species. 250 species. Class Mammalia. placentals. placental viviparity. 3,800 species (17 orders). “ Age of mammals”- beginning of Tertiary period- 70 mya

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slide1

monotremes

marsupials

egg layers

viviparous with pouch

6 species

250 species

Class Mammalia

placentals

placental viviparity

3,800 species (17 orders)

slide2
“Age of mammals”- beginning of Tertiary period- 70 mya
    • First mammals small with delicate skeletons, acute senses and possibly nocturnal
slide3

Characteristics

  • Hair or fur called pelage
    • Keratinized derivative of epidermis
    • Periodically molted
    • Insulating layer
    • Important to sense of touch
    • Most have claws, nails or hooves
slide4
Glands
    • Sebaceous- oil
    • Sudoriferous- sweat
    • Scent or musk- pheromones
    • Mammary (functional in females)- milk
      • Monotremes- no nipples

sebaceous

sudoriferous

mammary

musk

slide5
Skull and teeth
    • Single articulation of jaw bone
    • 3 middle ear ossicles
    • More extensive secondary palate- can chew and breathe
    • Specialized teeth set into sockets of jaw
      • Most two sets- deciduous and permanent
      • Dental formula to identify
      • Types of teeth based on diet
slide6
Skeleton and muscles
    • Most have 7 cervical vertebrae
    • Trunk divided into thoracic and abdominal cavities by diaphragm
    • Skeleton bears body weight- muscles concentrated in upper appendages
slide7
Nutrition and digestion
    • Specialized to diet
      • Some have cecum- fermentation pouch (rodents)
      • Some ruminants- 4 stomach chambers (cows)
slide8
Circulation and gas exchange
    • 4 chambered heart
    • Placental mammals exchange nutrients from maternal to fetal blood
    • High metabolic rate
    • Efficient lungs
slide9
Warm blooded

-heat production by shivering and brown fat

-heat reduction through ears, tails, panting, burrowing or finding shade

slide11
Nervous system
    • Complex- enlarged cerebral cortex
    • Acute senses- touch, smell, auditory, vision (most not color)
slide12
Excretion
    • Metanephric kidneys excrete urea (more water loss)
slide13
Reproduction
    • Most have cycles (ova mature)- hormone regulated
      • Estrus (“heat”)
      • Some induced cycles (menstrual)
slide14

Behavior

    • Complex- often visual
    • Pheromones and marking
    • Grooming
    • Territoriality
slide15

hedgehogs

moles

Order Insectivora

(third largest)

shrews

tenrecs

slide16

Order Chiroptera

bats

(second largest)

slide28

largest colonies

largest rodent

capybara

prairie dogs

can kill snakes

can roll in ball

mongoose

pangolin

slide29

highest altitude

"man of the forest"

yak

orangutan

largest monkey

largest herds

mandrill

springbok

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