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Post-Processing Interventions to Control Listeriosis. Don L. Zink, Ph.D. Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Food and Drug Administration. Risk Management Strategies.

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Post processing interventions to control listeriosis l.jpg

Post-Processing Interventions to ControlListeriosis

Don L. Zink, Ph.D.

Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

Food and Drug Administration


Risk management strategies l.jpg
Risk Management Strategies

  • Eliminate L. monocytogenes from the environment of processing plants that produce ready-to-eat foods

  • Use a pasteurization processes to destroy L. monocytogenes

    • In-pack pasteurization, or

    • Immediately before packaging

  • Use product formulations that prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes


Steam surface pasteurization l.jpg
Steam Surface Pasteurization*

* A joint development by ALKAR-RapidPak, Inc., Kraft/Oscar-Mayer and USDA-ERRC

SSP module extends length by two indexes

  • Provides a surface kill step immediately before packaging

  • Adapts to existing line, no effect on line speed or packaging cost

Graphics and information provided by ALKAR-RapidPak, Inc.


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Steam Surface Pasteurization

Machine Configuration

Film Travel Direction

Top film

Discharge

Cut Seal Cool SSP Load Form Preheat

heat

treatment

SSP step = 1.5 sec of high pressure steam

Graphics and information provided by ALKAR-RapidPak, Inc.


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Steam Surface Pasteurization

Vacuum Cooling Steam Injection

Servo lifts product pedestal up into SSP chamber

Graphics and information provided by ALKAR-RapidPak, Inc.


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Steam Surface Pasteurization

High Pressure Steam Injection

Vent Condensate Ports

  • Maximum contact time on most difficult area --- ends

  • 1.5 second cycle time with 4 alternating steam bursts per cycle

Bursts 1 and 3

Bursts 2 and 4

Graphics and information provided by ALKAR-RapidPak, Inc.


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Steam Surface Pasteurization

  • Hot dogs inoculated with indicator microorganism

  • SSP treatment = 1.5 seconds

  • 4-log reduction for single-layer package configuration

  • Actual Listeria monocytogenes inoculated-pack tests (102 per package) resulted in zero positives

  • Double-layer package tests in progress

    • Preliminary findings show 2.0 - 2.5 log reduction

Graphics and information provided by ALKAR-RapidPak, Inc.


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High Pressure Processing

Data and images supplied by Dr. Peter Slade, NCFST


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High Pressure Processing

  • Uses the combined effects of temperature and high pressure to kill bacteria

    • Minimizes thermal damage to products

    • Reduces treatment time

  • Lethal effect of treatment can be modeled and characterized for each product type

  • Process can be applied to packaged product

  • Not limited to surface-only effects, thus is applicable to sliced products

  • A Batch process with significant capital costs

Data and images supplied by Dr. Peter Slade, NCFST


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High Pressure Processing

t = 4.0 minutes

-0.8

-2.5

-4.2

-5.8

Log Reduction (N/N0)

-7.5

43.00

48.50

54.00

30.00

Pressure

(MPa)

35.00

59.50

40.00

Data and images supplied

by Dr. Peter Slade, NCFST

45.00

50.00

65.00

Temperature °C


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High Pressure Processing

P = 65 Kpsig (450 MPa) T = 40°C t = 6.0 minutes

Data and images supplied by Dr. Peter Slade, NCFST


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In-Package Pasteurization

Stork RMS-Protecon (Townsend) Steam-Based

Post-Process Pasteurization System

Data and images supplied by Drs. James Marsden and Randall Phebus, Kansas State University


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In Package Pasteurization

Log cycle reduction of Listeria monocytogenes at 96.1°C

Data and images supplied by Drs. James Marsden and Randall Phebus, Kansas State University


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Product Formulation

Sodium or Potassium Lactate

  • Weak acid.

  • Disrupts membrane pH gradients

  • Inhibit energy metabolism.

  • Lactate alone only bacteriostatic at high concentrations.

Sodium Diacetate

  • Dissociates into acetic acid and sodium acetate.

  • Lowers pH due to presence of acetic acid

  • Sodium diacetate alone only bacteriostatic at high levels.

Data and images supplied by Dr. Paul Hall, Kraft Foods


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Predicted Growth Rate (wk-1)

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

75

71

67

0

63

59

2.5

Product Moisture (%)

3.5

4.5

55

5.5

6.5

7.5

Potassium Lactate Syrup (%)

Product Formulation

Influence of Lactate and Moisture on Predicted Growth

Rate of L. monocytogenes in a Cured RTE Meat

Salt = 2.2 %, Diacetate = 0.1%

Data and images supplied by Dr. Paul Hall, Kraft Foods


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Product Formulation

Influence of Lactate and Moisture on Predicted Growth

Rate of L. monocytogenes in an Uncured RTE Meat

Salt = 2.2 %, Diacetate = 0.1%

0.24

0.2

0.16

Predicted Growth Rate (wk-1)

0.12

0.08

0.04

75

71

67

0

63

2.5

3.5

59

4.5

5.5

6.5

Product Moisture (%)

55

7.5

Potassium Lactate Syrup (%)

Data and images supplied by Dr. Paul Hall, Kraft Foods


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Product Formulation

Application of Lactate – Diacetate to Cured RTE

Meat Products

  • The model has been incorporated into a spreadsheet.

  • Composition (moisture, salt, lactate and diacetate) and an assumption about inoculum are input.

  • Growth parameters and a predicted growth curve are generated.

  • The model is used interactively to develop formulations that predict acceptable product quality and inhibit Listeria growth.

Data and images supplied by Dr. Paul Hall, Kraft Foods


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Product Formulation

Application of Lactate – Diacetate to Uncured RTE

Meat Products

  • Growth rates in uncured products are much higher

    • Nitrite inhibits the growth of Listeria

  • Rigid environmental control programs are important for both cured and uncured products

Data and images supplied by Dr. Paul Hall, Kraft Foods


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Product Formulation

Data and images supplied by Dr. Paul Hall, Kraft Foods


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Product Formulation

Inhibition of Growth of L. monocytogenes at 4°C by

Buffered Sodium Citrate (IonalTM)

Surface inoculum on beef franks

Data and images supplied by Drs. James Marsden and Randall Phebus, Kansas State University


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