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Physics 410. Light and Color Chapter 14. Doppler Effect. the change in wavelength due to motion of the source or observer "Wheeeeeeeeeeee…….Oooooooooooooo” Examples: Water, Sound, and Light. Wavelength. Source at Rest. What happens when the source in in motion?. Movie #1. Java.

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Physics 410 l.jpg

Physics 410

Light and Color

Chapter 14

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Doppler Effect

  • the change in wavelength due to motion of the source or observer

  • "Wheeeeeeeeeeee…….Oooooooooooooo”

  • Examples:

    • Water, Sound, and Light

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Source at Rest

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Long Wavelength

Low Frequency

Low Pitch


Short Wavelength

High Frequency

High Pitch


As a team, describe what happens to the wavelength, frequency, and pitch both in front of and behind a moving sound source.

Source in Motion

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Doppler Effect

  • Examples:

    • moving cars and trains

      • Sound

      • Movie #2

    • moving buzzer in a nerf ball (in class)

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

  • .

Radio Waves - communication

Microwaves - used to cook

Infrared - felt as warmth

Visible Light - detected by your eyes

Ultraviolet - causes sunburns

X-rays - penetrates tissue

Gamma Rays - most energetic


Raging Martians Invade Roy G. Biv

Using X-rays and Gamma Rays

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Radio Waves



Visible Light



Gamma Rays

Which form of light has the …longest wavelength?

…highest frequency? …highest energy?

…fastest speed?

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Physics 410

Light and Color

Chapter 14

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How to Study

  • Read the chapters in the syllabus and focus on the topics covered in class.

    • Chapter 13 - Waves and Sound

    • Chapter 14 - Light and Color

    • Chapter 18 - Atomic Models

    • Chapter 15 - Reflection and Refraction

  • Review your notes and class exercises.

  • Use the access code on the inside cover you’re your book to gain access to example questions and flashcards online.


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FlashlightsGet them all to work.Disassemble-Reassemble Race

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Things that create a Spectrum

  • Prism

  • Raindrops

  • CD’s

  • Diffraction Grating

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  • Hot, dense solids produce a continuous spectrum.

  • Demo - an incandescent light bulb and diffraction gratings

Continuous Spectrum

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Ziplock BagHome for Diffraction Grating

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Creating a Spectroscope

  • Roll up and tape black paper to form a tube.

  • Cover end of the tube with foil.

  • Use a pencil to make a hole in the foil.

  • Temporarily tape the diffraction grating over the other end of the tube.

  • Observe several light sources.

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Emission Spectra

  • Hot gas produces a bright line emission spectrum.

  • Demo - hot hydrogen gas and diffraction gratings

Emission Spectrum

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Every element can be “fingerprinted” by it spectra.

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Structure of the Atom

  • Proton

  • Neutron

  • Electron

  • Energy Levels

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  • When an electron is raised to a higher energy level, the atom is said to be excited.

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  • When the electron returns to a lower energy level, energy is released in the form of light.

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Object Names temperature.

  • Incandescent Light Bulb

  • Bright Plate #1 __________

  • Bright Plate #2 __________

  • Bright Plate #3 __________

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Object Names temperature.

  • Filter #1 __________

  • Filter #2 __________

  • Filter #3 __________

  • Filter #4 __________

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Physics 410 temperature.


Chapter 18

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Physics 410 temperature.

Reflection and Refraction

Chapter 15

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Law of Reflection temperature.

  • “The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.”

  • This is true for both flat mirrors and curved mirrors.

    • Concave Mirror

    • Convex Mirror

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Types of Reflection temperature.

  • Specular Reflection - images seen on smooth surfaces (e.g. plane mirrors)

  • Diffuse Reflection - diffuse light coming from a rough surface (cannot see a reflection of yourself)

  • Movie

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Supplemental Handouts temperature.

  • Make a Kaleidoscope

  • Funny Face

  • Reverse Images

  • Curved Mirrors and Smoke

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Principle of Least Time temperature.

  • Fermat's principle - light travels in straight lines and will take the path of least time



Wrong Path

True Path


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Reflection Demonstrations temperature.

  • Convex and Concave Mirrors

  • Candle in Water Video (Movie)

  • Terminator II Movie

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Physics 410 temperature.

Reflection and Refraction

Chapter 15

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Refraction temperature.

  • Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another.

  • This bending is caused by differences in the speed of light in the media.


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Refraction temperature.

Light Beam

Normal Line





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Refraction Examples temperature.

  • Light slows down when it goes from air into water and bends toward the normal.

  • An Analogy: A car slows down when it goes from pavement onto gravel and turns toward the normal. MOVIE

  • Index of Refraction


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Refraction temperature.




False Fish

True Fish

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Broken Images temperature.

  • Broken Pencil Movie

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Lenses temperature.

  • Converging Lens

    • A lens that is thicker in the middle and refracts parallel light rays passing through to a focus.

  • Diverging Lens

    • A lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges, causing parallel light rays to diverge.

  • Team Exercise: Lens sorting

  • Dispersion l.jpg
    Dispersion... temperature.

    • …is the separation of white light into pure colors (ROY G. BIV).

    • Dispersion Examples:

      • Prisms

      • Diffraction Gratings

      • CD’s

      • Raindrops

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    Rainbows temperature.

    • Raindrops refract, reflect and disperse sunlight.

    • Rainbows will always appear opposite of the Sun in the sky.

    • You cannot run from or run to a rainbow!

    • How can you make a rainbow?

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    Total Internal Reflection... temperature.

    • …is the total reflection of light traveling in a medium when it strikes a surface of a less dense medium

    • Demo - Laser and light pipe

    • Example: Optical Fiber Ring

    • Laser Underwater Movie

    • Woman Edge Pool Movie

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    AIR temperature.

    Critical Angle







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    Diffraction temperature.

    • a modification which light undergoes in passing by the edges of bodies or through narrow slits

    • …and in which the rays appear to be deflected and to produce fringes of parallel light and dark or colored bands

    • Water Wave Interference Movie

    • Multiple Slit Interference Movie

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    Atmospheric Refraction temperature.

    • Our atmosphere can bend light and create distorted images called mirages.

    • What causes stars to twinkle?

      • Atmospheric Turbulence

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    Mirage temperature.

    Cool air

    Warm air

    Surface of water?

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    Because of atmospheric refraction, temperature.

    we have lingering, elliptical sunsets.




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