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Physics 410. Light and Color Chapter 14. Doppler Effect. the change in wavelength due to motion of the source or observer "Wheeeeeeeeeeee…….Oooooooooooooo” Examples: Water, Sound, and Light. Wavelength. Source at Rest. What happens when the source in in motion?. Movie #1. Java.

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physics 410

Physics 410

Light and Color

Chapter 14

doppler effect
Doppler Effect
  • the change in wavelength due to motion of the source or observer
  • "Wheeeeeeeeeeee…….Oooooooooooooo”
  • Examples:
    • Water, Sound, and Light
slide3

Wavelength

Source at Rest

slide5

Long Wavelength

Low Frequency

Low Pitch

Ooooooo!!!

Short Wavelength

High Frequency

High Pitch

Weeeeeeeee!!!

As a team, describe what happens to the wavelength, frequency, and pitch both in front of and behind a moving sound source.

Source in Motion

doppler effect6
Doppler Effect
  • Examples:
    • moving cars and trains
      • Sound
      • Movie #2
    • moving buzzer in a nerf ball (in class)
the electromagnetic spectrum

R

O

Y

G

B

I

V

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • .

Radio Waves - communication

Microwaves - used to cook

Infrared - felt as warmth

Visible Light - detected by your eyes

Ultraviolet - causes sunburns

X-rays - penetrates tissue

Gamma Rays - most energetic

Mnemonic?

Raging Martians Invade Roy G. Biv

Using X-rays and Gamma Rays

the electromagnetic spectrum8
The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Radio Waves

Microwaves

Infrared

Visible Light

Ultraviolet

X-rays

Gamma Rays

Which form of light has the …longest wavelength?

…highest frequency? …highest energy?

…fastest speed?

physics 41031

Physics 410

Light and Color

Chapter 14

how to study
How to Study
  • Read the chapters in the syllabus and focus on the topics covered in class.
    • Chapter 13 - Waves and Sound
    • Chapter 14 - Light and Color
    • Chapter 18 - Atomic Models
    • Chapter 15 - Reflection and Refraction
  • Review your notes and class exercises.
  • Use the access code on the inside cover you’re your book to gain access to example questions and flashcards online.
    • http://www.physicsplace.com/
things that create a spectrum
Things that create a Spectrum
  • Prism
  • Raindrops
  • CD’s
  • Diffraction Grating
incandescence
Incandescence
  • Hot, dense solids produce a continuous spectrum.
  • Demo - an incandescent light bulb and diffraction gratings

Continuous Spectrum

creating a spectroscope
Creating a Spectroscope
  • Roll up and tape black paper to form a tube.
  • Cover end of the tube with foil.
  • Use a pencil to make a hole in the foil.
  • Temporarily tape the diffraction grating over the other end of the tube.
  • Observe several light sources.
emission spectra
Emission Spectra
  • Hot gas produces a bright line emission spectrum.
  • Demo - hot hydrogen gas and diffraction gratings

Emission Spectrum

slide41

Hydrogen

Helium

Oxygen

Carbon

Every element can be “fingerprinted” by it spectra.

structure of the atom
Structure of the Atom
  • Proton
  • Neutron
  • Electron
  • Energy Levels
excitation
Excitation
  • When an electron is raised to a higher energy level, the atom is said to be excited.
emission
Emission
  • When the electron returns to a lower energy level, energy is released in the form of light.
slide46
The color of light emitted by a hot object changes with its temperature.
  • Glowing object colors:
      • Reddish coolest glowing object
      • Orange-ish
      • Yellowish
      • White
      • Bluish  hottest glowing object
slide48
Object Names
  • Incandescent Light Bulb
  • Bright Plate #1 __________
  • Bright Plate #2 __________
  • Bright Plate #3 __________
slide50
Object Names
  • Filter #1 __________
  • Filter #2 __________
  • Filter #3 __________
  • Filter #4 __________
physics 41051

Physics 410

Spectra

Chapter 18

physics 41053

Physics 410

Reflection and Refraction

Chapter 15

law of reflection
Law of Reflection
  • “The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.”
  • This is true for both flat mirrors and curved mirrors.
    • Concave Mirror
    • Convex Mirror
types of reflection
Types of Reflection
  • Specular Reflection - images seen on smooth surfaces (e.g. plane mirrors)
  • Diffuse Reflection - diffuse light coming from a rough surface (cannot see a reflection of yourself)
  • Movie
supplemental handouts
Supplemental Handouts
  • Make a Kaleidoscope
  • Funny Face
  • Reverse Images
  • Curved Mirrors and Smoke
principle of least time
Principle of Least Time
  • Fermat\'s principle - light travels in straight lines and will take the path of least time

A

B

Wrong Path

True Path

MIRROR

reflection demonstrations
Reflection Demonstrations
  • Convex and Concave Mirrors
  • Candle in Water Video (Movie)
  • Terminator II Movie
physics 41069

Physics 410

Reflection and Refraction

Chapter 15

refraction
Refraction
  • Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another.
  • This bending is caused by differences in the speed of light in the media.
  • WATER WAVE MOVIE
refraction71
Refraction

Light Beam

Normal Line

Fast

AIR

WATER

Slow

refraction examples
Refraction Examples
  • Light slows down when it goes from air into water and bends toward the normal.
  • An Analogy: A car slows down when it goes from pavement onto gravel and turns toward the normal. MOVIE
  • Index of Refraction

n=c/v

refraction73
Refraction

Observer

AIR

WATER

False Fish

True Fish

broken images
Broken Images
  • Broken Pencil Movie
lenses
Lenses
  • Converging Lens
      • A lens that is thicker in the middle and refracts parallel light rays passing through to a focus.
  • Diverging Lens
      • A lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges, causing parallel light rays to diverge.
  • Team Exercise: Lens sorting
dispersion
Dispersion...
  • …is the separation of white light into pure colors (ROY G. BIV).
  • Dispersion Examples:
      • Prisms
      • Diffraction Gratings
      • CD’s
      • Raindrops
rainbows
Rainbows
  • Raindrops refract, reflect and disperse sunlight.
  • Rainbows will always appear opposite of the Sun in the sky.
  • You cannot run from or run to a rainbow!
  • How can you make a rainbow?
total internal reflection
Total Internal Reflection...
  • …is the total reflection of light traveling in a medium when it strikes a surface of a less dense medium
  • Demo - Laser and light pipe
  • Example: Optical Fiber Ring
  • Laser Underwater Movie
  • Woman Edge Pool Movie
slide86

AIR

Critical Angle

WATER

Total

Internal

Reflection

Light

Source

diffraction
Diffraction
  • a modification which light undergoes in passing by the edges of bodies or through narrow slits
  • …and in which the rays appear to be deflected and to produce fringes of parallel light and dark or colored bands
  • Water Wave Interference Movie
  • Multiple Slit Interference Movie
atmospheric refraction
Atmospheric Refraction
  • Our atmosphere can bend light and create distorted images called mirages.
  • What causes stars to twinkle?
    • Atmospheric Turbulence
slide91

Mirage

Cool air

Warm air

Surface of water?

slide93

Because of atmospheric refraction,

we have lingering, elliptical sunsets.

Sun

Earth

Sun

slide98

http://virtual.finland.fi/stream/The_Green_Flash_on_video.ramhttp://virtual.finland.fi/stream/The_Green_Flash_on_video.ram

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