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Personality Disorders. Definition: Personality Disorder an enduring pattern of maladaptive behavior features of these disorders usually become recognizable during adolescence or early adult life should not be confused with personality trait. Three Types of Personality Disorders:.

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  • Definition: Personality Disorder

  • an enduring pattern of maladaptive behavior

  • features of these disorders usually become recognizable during adolescence or early adult life

  • should not be confused with personality trait


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Three Types of Personality Disorders:

Cluster A

Cluster B

Cluster C


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Cluster AParanoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal

Defining characteristics of Cluster A:

  • Eccentric

  • Withdrawal behavior


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Cluster BAntisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic

Defining characteristics of Cluster B:

  • Dramatic

  • Emotional

  • Erratic/explosive

  • Likes to be center of attention


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Cluster CAvoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive

Defining characteristics of Cluster C:

  • Anxious

  • Fearful


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Paranoid Personality Disorder

Pervasive distrust & suspiciousness of others

  • suspects exploitation or deception of others

  • jealous & envious

  • hypersensitive (reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events)

    cont.


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Paranoid Personality Disorder cont.

3. rigid

4. persistently bears grudges

(i.e. unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights)


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Schizoid Personality Disorder

  • Pattern of detachment from social relationships

  • Restricted range of expressions of emotions

    (cool, aloof, doesn’t react)

    cont.


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Schizoid Personality Disorder cont.

  • neither desires nor enjoys close relationships (including being part of a family)

  • almost always chooses solitary activities

  • has little interest in sexual encounters

  • takes pleasure in few, if any activities

  • appear indifferent to praise or criticism of others


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Schizotypal Personality Disorder

  • Demonstrates many symptoms related to those of schizophrenia but of less severe nature

    cont.


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Schizotypal Personality Disorder cont.

  • tends to be a loner; excessive social anxiety

  • appearance is odd, eccentric, or peculiar

  • unusual pattern of talking that is vague & abstract


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Schizotypal Personality Disorder cont.

  • 4. usually demonstrates lack of emotions, but when emotions are shown, often seem inappropriate for circumstance

  • 5. preoccupied by thoughts of magical nature


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Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • Disregard for and violation of rights of others

    cont.


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Antisocial Personality Disorder cont.

  • unlawful behavior despite potential for arrest

  • deceitfulness (repeated lying, use of aliases, conning for personal profit or pleasure)

  • repeated physical fights or assaults


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Antisocial Personality Disorder cont.

  • 4. reckless disregard for safety of self or others

  • 5. irresponsible

  • 6. lack of remorse

  • 7. evidence of this behavior appears before 15 years of age


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Borderline Personality Disorder

  • Demonstrates unpredictability of self-image, in relationships & emotions

    cont.


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Borderline Personality Disorder cont.

  • frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment

    2. pattern of intense & unstable interpersonal relationships (idealization & devaluation)

    3. impulsivity that is potentially self-damaging (spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)


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Borderline Personality Disorder cont.

  • 4. recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior

  • 5. chronic feelings of emptiness

  • 6. difficulty controlling anger


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Histrionic Personality Disorder

  • Excessive emotions & attention seeking behavior behavior

    cont.


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Histrionic Personality Disorder cont.

  • always wants to be center of attention

    2. inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior

    3. rapidly shifting & shallow expression of emotions


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Histrionic Personality Disorder cont.

4. dramatic speech exaggerated with emotion

5. easily influenced by others or circumstances

6. considers relationships more intimate than they actually are


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Narcissistic Personality Disorder

  • Attitude that the world exists to meet his/her needs

    cont.


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Narcissistic Personality Disorder cont.

  • sense of self-importance (exaggerates achievements & talents)

    2. preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, or ideal love

    3. believes he/she is “special”

  • has sense of entitlement

    cont.


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Narcissistic Personality Disorder cont.

  • requires excessive admiration

  • takes advantage of others to achieve own ends

    7. lacks empathy

    8. often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him/her

    9. arrogant, haughty behavior or attitude


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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Demonstrates pattern of

  • social inhibition

  • feelings of inadequacy

  • hypersensitivity to negative situations

    cont.


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Avoidant personality Disorder cont.

  • avoids interpersonal activities (occupational & social)

    2. unwilling to get involved unless certain of being liked

    3. shows restraint within intimate relationships (fear of ridicule)


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Avoidant personality Disorder cont.

5. views self as socially inept, inferior, or unappealing

6. reluctant to take personal risks or engage in new activities


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Dependent Personality Disorder

  • Excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive & clinging behavior

    cont.


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Dependent Personality Disorder cont.

  • difficulty making decisions without advice & reassurance

    2. needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of life

    3. difficulty expressing disagreement with others


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Dependent Personality Disorder cont.

4. difficulty initiating projects on own

5. goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance

6. feels helpless when alone


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Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

  • Preoccupation with orderliness & perfectionism

    cont.


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Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder cont.

  • Preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization or schedules to extent that major point of activity is lost

    2. Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion

    3. Excessively devoted to work to exclusion of leisure activities & friendships

    cont.


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Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder cont.

  • Reluctant to delegate tasks

    5. Over conscientious, inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values

    6. Unable to discard worn-out worthless objects

    7. Rigid & stubborn

cont.


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Don’t confuse Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder withObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

  • Individuals with OCD have obsessions and compulsions that are held in place by rituals, superstitions, and fears.

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder individuals are “neat-freaks”.


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