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Ancient Greece Classical and Hellenic Sculpture “The Nude Dudes” New Vocab: -Contrapposto -Pathos Recovered from ruins of the Acropolis-differs significantly from earlier Kourous- stands in a realistic way- with weight shifts-no more symmetry- faint s-curve

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Ancient Greece

Classical and Hellenic Sculpture

“The Nude Dudes”

New Vocab:

-Contrapposto

-Pathos


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Recovered from ruins of the Acropolis-differs significantly from earlier Kourous- stands in a realistic way- with weight shifts-no more symmetry- faint s-curve


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  • Contrapposto- standing at ease, a balanced non-symmetry from earlier Kourous- stands in a realistic way- with weight shifts-no more symmetry- faint s-curve

  • Leg that carries the weight is the engaged leg, the other is the free leg

  • Major discovery- learning how to show the body at rest

  • Gives a new animation to the body-archaic smile is no longer needed- expressions are now more serious

  • Each muscle shows the new balance of weight in the Spear Bearer- even the head

  • The measure of true human beauty

Spear Bearer (Roman Copy) 450-440 BC by Polyclitus


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  • The Severe Style- from earlier Kourous- stands in a realistic way- with weight shifts-no more symmetry- faint s-curve

  • Started with the introduction of Contrapposto

  • describes sculpture between 480 and 450 BC

  • Charioteer- 1st large scale Greek bronze sculpture- contrapposto is present despite heavy clothing

  • Left foot is the engaged one

  • Folds of clothing are much softer than archaic sculpture- reflect the behavior of real cloth- shows the pull of gravity

  • Animated expression, very solemn

Charioteer, 470 BC


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  • Movement in statues-- from earlier Kourous- stands in a realistic way- with weight shifts-no more symmetry- faint s-curve

  • Could only be achieved after the invention of contrapposto

  • Large, free-standing sculptures in motion is the greatest achievement of the severe style

  • Poseidon- in the act of throwing trident (or thunderbolt)

  • Pose is athletic, a gesture rather than in mid action- a divine action

Poseidon (Zeus?) c.460-450 BC, Bronze


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Discobolus, Roman marble copy of Greek bronze c. 450 BC by Myron


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  • Carved as a pediment sculpture more complex

  • Tells the story of Niobid who bragged about her children to Apollo and Artemis- the Gods killed her children and shot an arrow in her back

  • The drapery serves as a dramatic device- shows the violence in her pose

  • Purpose was to show a beautiful female body in strenuous action

  • Unites suffering and motion

Dying Niobid, c.450-440 BC


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Pathos- suffering conveyed with nobility and restraint- meant to touch us rather than horrify us

Compare


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Three Goddesses, east pediment, 438-432 meant to touch us rather than horrify us

Also fits into pediment, drapery adds to ease and spaciousness of the sculpture

Architectural sculpture is clearly moving away from the confines of the pediment


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Characterized by great sense of rhythm meant to touch us rather than horrify us

Horsemen, west frieze of Parthenon c. 440 BC

Phidian Style-

Phidian was the chief overseer of artistic enterprises sponsored bu Pericles- Parthenon sculpture fits under this category, but many different artisans worked on them


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  • Why is she taking off her shoes??? meant to touch us rather than horrify us

  • Rhythm and grace in an awkward position

  • Figure is strongly detached from background

  • Garment makes her look wet

Nike, balustrade of Temple of

Athena Nike, 410-407 BC


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  • From Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, funerary monument

  • structure probably derived from Egyptian idea- very “un-Greek”

  • Scopas- recognizable style

  • Of the Parthenon tradition, but the physical violence depicted is very un-Classical

Scopas, Battle of the Greeks and Amazons, east frieze

Mausoleum, 359-351 BC


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Cnidian Aphrodite (Roman copy) 300 BC

Done by Praxiteles


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  • Sense of complete relaxation meant to touch us rather than horrify us

  • S-curve of body

  • Faint smile

  • Probably Praxiteles’ greatest accomplishment

Hermes, by Praxiteles, c. 300-320 BC


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  • Lysippus- another great name in 4th c. sculpture meant to touch us rather than horrify us

  • New sense of proportion- more slender body, smaller head

  • Shows athlete scraping himself with a scraper-common motif

  • Both arms are horizontally extended, diagonal line of the free leg, unruly hair- freedom of 3-dimensional movement

Apoxomenos (Scraper)Roman copy of a Greek bronze, c. 330 by Lysippus


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  • Hellenistic Sculpture meant to touch us rather than horrify us-

  • Hellenistic period defined by the spread of Greek culture by the conquests of Alexander the Great

  • Sculpture began to be produced in far reaches of the empire

  • Characterized by action, pathos, movement


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Dying Gaul, Roman copy of a Greek bronze, 230-220 BC meant to touch us rather than horrify us

  • Commemorates defeat of the Gauls, a Celtic tribe that invaded Asia Minor

  • Shows ethnic type- facial structure and hair type, rope around neck

  • Shares heroic nudity of Greek warriors- seen as worthy foes

  • Has a new animal quality- very physical process of dying


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  • Depicts a drunken satyr, asleep

  • In a state of dreaming- troubled expression, convulsive gesture

  • Get your mind out of the gutter!

Barberini Faun, Roman copy, c.220 BC


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Frieze Detail meant to touch us rather than horrify us

  • Carved to a great depth-almost detached, no longer confined to pediment

  • Depicts the battle of the gods and giants- a popular theme- now symbolizes specific ruler’s victories- like the Near East tradition- divine kingship was re-introduced with Alexander

  • Dramatic force, writhing movement


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Nike of Samothrace c.200-190 BC


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The Laocoon Group (Roman copy) 1st c. AD


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  • Produced for private ownership that figure is air born, animates drapery

  • Broader range of subject matter than monumental sculpture

  • Everyday subjects

  • Same love for movement and action

Veiled Dancer c.200BC


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