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Ancient Greece Classical and Hellenic Sculpture “The Nude Dudes”

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Ancient Greece Classical and Hellenic Sculpture “The Nude Dudes” New Vocab: -Contrapposto -Pathos Recovered from ruins of the Acropolis-differs significantly from earlier Kourous- stands in a realistic way- with weight shifts-no more symmetry- faint s-curve

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slide1

Ancient Greece

Classical and Hellenic Sculpture

“The Nude Dudes”

New Vocab:

-Contrapposto

-Pathos

slide2

Recovered from ruins of the Acropolis-differs significantly from earlier Kourous- stands in a realistic way- with weight shifts-no more symmetry- faint s-curve

slide3

Contrapposto- standing at ease, a balanced non-symmetry

  • Leg that carries the weight is the engaged leg, the other is the free leg
  • Major discovery- learning how to show the body at rest
  • Gives a new animation to the body-archaic smile is no longer needed- expressions are now more serious
  • Each muscle shows the new balance of weight in the Spear Bearer- even the head
  • The measure of true human beauty

Spear Bearer (Roman Copy) 450-440 BC by Polyclitus

slide4

The Severe Style-

  • Started with the introduction of Contrapposto
  • describes sculpture between 480 and 450 BC
  • Charioteer- 1st large scale Greek bronze sculpture- contrapposto is present despite heavy clothing
  • Left foot is the engaged one
  • Folds of clothing are much softer than archaic sculpture- reflect the behavior of real cloth- shows the pull of gravity
  • Animated expression, very solemn

Charioteer, 470 BC

slide5

Movement in statues--

  • Could only be achieved after the invention of contrapposto
  • Large, free-standing sculptures in motion is the greatest achievement of the severe style
  • Poseidon- in the act of throwing trident (or thunderbolt)
  • Pose is athletic, a gesture rather than in mid action- a divine action

Poseidon (Zeus?) c.460-450 BC, Bronze

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- condenses a sequence of motions into a single pose- much more complex

  • Brings in era of the mature classical style
  • All sculpture was effected by new freedom

Discobolus, Roman marble copy of Greek bronze c. 450 BC by Myron

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Carved as a pediment sculpture

  • Tells the story of Niobid who bragged about her children to Apollo and Artemis- the Gods killed her children and shot an arrow in her back
  • The drapery serves as a dramatic device- shows the violence in her pose
  • Purpose was to show a beautiful female body in strenuous action
  • Unites suffering and motion

Dying Niobid, c.450-440 BC

slide8

Pathos- suffering conveyed with nobility and restraint- meant to touch us rather than horrify us

Compare

slide9

Three Goddesses, east pediment, 438-432

Also fits into pediment, drapery adds to ease and spaciousness of the sculpture

Architectural sculpture is clearly moving away from the confines of the pediment

slide10

Characterized by great sense of rhythm

Horsemen, west frieze of Parthenon c. 440 BC

Phidian Style-

Phidian was the chief overseer of artistic enterprises sponsored bu Pericles- Parthenon sculpture fits under this category, but many different artisans worked on them

slide11

Why is she taking off her shoes???

  • Rhythm and grace in an awkward position
  • Figure is strongly detached from background
  • Garment makes her look wet

Nike, balustrade of Temple of

Athena Nike, 410-407 BC

slide12

Pre-Hellenic, 4th Century Sculpture--400-100 BC

  • The period after the Peloponnesian War and before the rise of Alexander the Great
  • From Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, funerary monument
  • structure probably derived from Egyptian idea- very “un-Greek”
  • Scopas- recognizable style
  • Of the Parthenon tradition, but the physical violence depicted is very un-Classical

Scopas, Battle of the Greeks and Amazons, east frieze

Mausoleum, 359-351 BC

slide13

1st completely nude figure of Aphrodite

  • Statue became a synonym for absolute beauty

Cnidian Aphrodite (Roman copy) 300 BC

Done by Praxiteles

slide14

Sense of complete relaxation

  • S-curve of body
  • Faint smile
  • Probably Praxiteles’ greatest accomplishment

Hermes, by Praxiteles, c. 300-320 BC

slide15

Lysippus- another great name in 4th c. sculpture

  • New sense of proportion- more slender body, smaller head
  • Shows athlete scraping himself with a scraper-common motif
  • Both arms are horizontally extended, diagonal line of the free leg, unruly hair- freedom of 3-dimensional movement

Apoxomenos (Scraper)Roman copy of a Greek bronze, c. 330 by Lysippus

slide16

Hellenistic Sculpture-

  • Hellenistic period defined by the spread of Greek culture by the conquests of Alexander the Great
  • Sculpture began to be produced in far reaches of the empire
  • Characterized by action, pathos, movement
slide17

Dying Gaul, Roman copy of a Greek bronze, 230-220 BC

  • Commemorates defeat of the Gauls, a Celtic tribe that invaded Asia Minor
  • Shows ethnic type- facial structure and hair type, rope around neck
  • Shares heroic nudity of Greek warriors- seen as worthy foes
  • Has a new animal quality- very physical process of dying
slide18

Mrs. Field says: “You won’t ever forget this one!!”

  • Depicts a drunken satyr, asleep
  • In a state of dreaming- troubled expression, convulsive gesture
  • Get your mind out of the gutter!

Barberini Faun, Roman copy, c.220 BC

slide19

Frieze Detail

  • Carved to a great depth-almost detached, no longer confined to pediment
  • Depicts the battle of the gods and giants- a popular theme- now symbolizes specific ruler’s victories- like the Near East tradition- divine kingship was re-introduced with Alexander
  • Dramatic force, writhing movement
slide20

Shows dramatic internal and external forces- wind suggests that figure is air born, animates drapery

  • NEW relationship between form and the space it occupies

Nike of Samothrace c.200-190 BC

slide21

Found in Rome in 1506, greatly influenced Michelangelo

  • Represented sublime tragedy to the people of the Renaissance

The Laocoon Group (Roman copy) 1st c. AD

slide22

Produced for private ownership

  • Broader range of subject matter than monumental sculpture
  • Everyday subjects
  • Same love for movement and action

Veiled Dancer c.200BC

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