Force favoring aggregation. protection from physical factors hydrodynamic effects - birds & fish reduce predation pressure: group defense, vigilance, dilution, selfish herd assembly for mate location improve feeding efficiency. Reduce path overlap Information transfer Group foraging
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----- > ----- , or rB - C > 0
A. By improving the survival of breeders
B. By improving reproductive output of breeders
A. Nonreproductive group members may be more likely to inherit a territory
B. Helpers may be able to inherit a mate when a former breeder dies
Science 297: 253-256, 2002