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Chapter 8. Population Ecology. Video: Otter Feeding. PLAY VIDEO. POPULATION DYNAMICS AND CARRYING CAPACITY. Most populations live in clumps although other patterns occur based on resource distribution. Figure 8-2. (a) Clumped (elephants). Fig. 8-2a, p. 162. (b) Uniform (creosote bush).

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8 l.jpg

Chapter 8

Population Ecology


Video otter feeding l.jpg

Video: Otter Feeding

PLAY

VIDEO


Population dynamics and carrying capacity l.jpg

POPULATION DYNAMICS AND CARRYING CAPACITY

  • Most populations live in clumps although other patterns occur based on resource distribution.

Figure 8-2


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(a) Clumped (elephants)

Fig. 8-2a, p. 162


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(b) Uniform (creosote bush)

Fig. 8-2b, p. 162


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(c) Random (dandelions)

Fig. 8-2c, p. 162


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Animation: Exponential Growth

PLAY

ANIMATION


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Video: Logistic Growth

PLAY

VIDEO


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Exceeding Carrying Capacity: Move, Switch Habits, or Decline in Size

  • Members of populations which exceed their resources will die unless they adapt or move to an area with more resources.

Figure 8-6


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Population

overshoots

carrying

capacity

Population

Crashes

Number of reindeer

Carrying

capacity

Year

Fig. 8-6, p. 165


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Population Density and Population Change: Effects of Crowding

  • Population density: the number of individuals in a population found in a particular area or volume.

    • A population’s density can affect how rapidly it can grow or decline.

      • e.g. biotic factors like disease

    • Some population control factors are not affected by population density.

      • e.g. abiotic factors like weather


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Types of Population Change Curves in Nature

  • Population sizes may stay the same, increase, decrease, vary in regular cycles, or change erratically.

    • Stable: fluctuates slightly above and below carrying capacity.

    • Irruptive: populations explode and then crash to a more stable level.

    • Cyclic: populations fluctuate and regular cyclic or boom-and-bust cycles.

    • Irregular: erratic changes possibly due to chaos or drastic change.


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Types of Population Change Curves in Nature

  • Population sizes often vary in regular cycles when the predator and prey populations are controlled by the scarcity of resources.

Figure 8-7


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Hare

Lynx

Population size (thousands)

Year

Fig. 8-7, p. 166


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Animation: Capture-Recapture Method

PLAY

ANIMATION


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Reproductive Patterns:Opportunists and Competitors

  • Large number of smaller offspring with little parental care (r-selected species).

  • Fewer, larger offspring with higher invested parental care (K-selected species).

Figure 8-9


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Reproductive Patterns

  • r-selected species tend to be opportunists while K-selected species tend to be competitors.

Figure 8-10


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Late loss

Constant loss

Percentage surviving (log scale)

Early loss

Age

Fig. 8-11, p. 169


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Animation: Life History Patterns

PLAY

ANIMATION


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Video: Coral Spawning

PLAY

VIDEO


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Video: Kelp Forest (Channel Islands)

PLAY

VIDEO


Video salmons swimming upstream l.jpg

Video: Salmons Swimming Upstream

PLAY

VIDEO


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