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Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint, or mesh wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores.
Surveillance cameras on a corner
Dome CCTV cameras
In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing Digital Video Recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP-based CCTV cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation.
CCTV systems have become extremely popular over the last few decades as the technology has improved and become more affordable. The majority of CCTV cameras in use today are usually for surveillance and security purposes. CCTV systems can be found in almost every bank, casino, mall, and large department store. In fact, CCTV systems have become so affordable, most smaller mom and pop stores also have CCTV systems in them for security purposes.
There are many types of CCTV cameras. They can be categorized by the types of images they are able to capture, the amount of frames they can take per minute, the type of connection to the monitor or video recording device, whether they are able to move position, and special functions they can provide.
Types of Images: CCTV cameras generally take both black and white or color video images. In addition, many CCTV cameras even have night vision capabilities that allow a CCTV camera to view and record low light images using special technology.
Frames per Second: Frames per second is the amount of full frames that a video camera captures and sends to a recording device or monitor per second. While most CCTV camera systems easily capture 30 or more frames per second, the amount of video tape or digital storage would be enormous to record every moment of everyday. For most stores, speeds of 1 to 6 frames per second are more than enough to catch and record a perpetrator committing a crime.
Pan Tilt Zoom Cameras: These types of CCTV cameras allow a person controlling the surveillance of an area to move the camera remotely, usually with an RF or wired controller. Most movable cameras allow the person monitoring it to move the camera from right to left , up and down.
Cameras with Special Accessories: Certain CCTV cameras have special functions that are made for specialty uses. For instance, there are extremely small surveillance cameras that are used for spying (Nanny Cams), night viewing, are vandal resistant, and that are specifically made for indoor or outdoor uses.
Most wireless CCTV cameras use the 2.4 Gigahertz frequencies to transmit their video images to a monitor or DVR (digital video recorder). Usually, frequencies can be slightly changed to have more than one group of cameras in a specific space. Wireless CCTV cameras that use this frequency can easily transmit through most walls and obstacles. However, each individual location will have its own operating limits. Expect most wireless CCTV cameras to send data to a range of about 200 feet. However, many will more likely work well when transmitting less than 150 feet. A clear line of sight transmission will always work best.
Obviously a wireless connection allows greater freedom to place CCTV cameras almost anywhere. While wireless CCTV cameras transmit their video images to a digital video recorder or monitor, many of these types of cameras must be plugged into an electrical outlet. There are, however, some CCTV cameras that are battery operated.
There are two types of DVRs (Digital Video Recorders). They are either stand alone devices or hard drives that are connected to a computer system. DVRs work similar to VCRs, but the images they capture from the CCTV camera is digital. The amount of digital images captured on a DVR is determined by a few factors including the frames per second recorded, the amount of cameras hooked up to the DVR device, the resolution that the DVR saves the images at, and the video compression used (e.g. MPEG4). For a common set up, where 4 cameras are shooting at 30 fps and an image resolution of 320 X 240 is being used, each camera only records when motion is on, and MPEG4 compression is used, users should be able fill up a 20 to 25 GB hard drive in about 80 hours.
Digital CCTV is a relatively new technology that has proclaimed itself to be the next level in security monitoring systems. Recent advances in technology over the past couple of years has made digital CCTV available and affordable for virtually anyone to implement on their premises.
Versatile in design, digital CCTV operates across a standard ethernet, so no extra wiring is required in the majority of situations. Once installed on your premises, your digital CCTV network can be added to quickly and easily simply by installing new CCTV cameras and adding these to your CCTV software package.
Once your network of CCTV cameras have been installed on your site, you are able to analyse both live and historic event-based video clips through your PC monitor using the CCTV software supplied with your system.
Digital CCTV is unique in that it will only record images when movement is detected. This ultimately means that you will only have CCTV footage of activity: when something occurs across the camera\'s field of view.
The quality of the footage generated by your digital CCTV cameras means that evidence quality images are generated, which can be used in a court of law to prosecute perpetrators. Analogue CCTV systems invariably are unable to do this.
The integrational capabilities of digital CCTV mean that in addition to working extremely well as a standalone security system, it can also be connected to other installed security equipment.
A growing branch in CCTV is internet protocol cameras (IP cameras). IP cameras use the Internet Protocol (IP) used by most Local Area Networks (LANs) to transmit video across data networks in digital form. IP can optionally be transmitted across the public internet, allowing users to view their camera(s) through any internet connection available through a computer or a 3G phone. For professional or public infrastructure security applications, IP video is restricted to within a private network or VPN
The system is for image transmission of CCTV camera applied DSL and
Max. transmission speed : 1Mbps / 5Km
Efficient Transmission Speed : 3Mbps / within 4Km
Using Optic cable for long distance image transmission ( ~ 15Km)
Using Telephone line instead of Coaxial cable, it makes maintenance
Suit for Security and Surveillance system through Closed- Network of DSL /
3U Shelf and 19’’ rack mount type for maintenance easier.
System could be composed to Max. 24 ports using DSL/Optic units by user
In case of using Optic system, Image transmission by 2 Ethernet cables of CPE
which is connected with camera, also designable.
WATER PROOF CCTV
Today’s High-definition CCTV cameras have many computer controlled technologies that allow them to identify, track, and categorize objects in their field of view.
Video Content Analysis (VCA) is the capability of automatically analyzing video to detect and determine temporal events not based on a single image. As such, it can be seen as the automated equivalent of the biological visual cortex. A system using VCA can recognize changes in the environment and even identify and compare objects in the database using size, speed, and sometimes color. The camera’s actions can be programmed based on what it is “seeing”. For example; an alarm can be issued if an object has moved in a certain area, or if a painting is missing from a wall, and if someone has spray painted the lens.
VCA also has the ability to track people on a map by calculating their position from the images. It is then possible to link many cameras and track a person through an entire building or area. This can allow a person to be followed without having to analyze many hours of film. Currently the cameras have difficulty identifying individuals from video alone, but if connected to a key-card system, identities can be established and displayed as a tag over their heads on the video.
Facial recognition systemIs a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.
Computerized monitoring of CCTV images is under development, so that a human CCTV operator does not have to endlessly look at all the screens, allowing an operator to observe many more CCTV cameras. These systems do not observe people directly. Instead, they track their behavior by looking for particular types of body-movement behavior, or particular types of clothing or baggage.