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The Persian Gulf. Title Page – The Persian Gulf. By: Seth Charms Megan Barrett Jenny Hyman. Table of Contents. Iraq Iran Saudi Arabia. Iraq. Iraq Map. Table of Contents. Saddam Hussein Iran-Iraq War Persian Gulf War Gulf War Pictures Gulf War Movies Iraqi surrender

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The Persian Gulf

Title Page – The Persian Gulf

By:

  • Seth Charms

  • Megan Barrett

  • Jenny Hyman


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Table of Contents

  • Iraq

  • Iran

  • Saudi Arabia


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Iraq

Iraq Map


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Table of Contents

  • Saddam Hussein

  • Iran-Iraq War

  • Persian Gulf War

  • Gulf War Pictures

  • Gulf War Movies

  • Iraqi surrender

  • Economic Sanctions and Weapon Inspections


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Saddam Hussein

  • Hussein moved to Baghdad in 1955, in 1959 he joined the Baath party and escaped to Cairo after an assassination.

  • Hussein became involved in politics and returned to Baghdad in 1963

  • Built country up and bought Soviet weapons with oil money

  • Rules country with an iron hand, killed enemies


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Iran-Iraq War

  • Iraqi loses totaled 400,000 soldiers, and a debt of $75 billion.

  • Lead by Hussein


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Persian Gulf War

  • Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 and refused to leave by the UN security council deadline of January 1991.

  • Led by Hussein





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Economic Sanctions & Weapon Inspections

  • The UN impressed economic sanctions on Iraq, such as no fly-zones and embargo.

  • The UN demanded themselves to be allowed to check for illegal weapons but this was denied by Saddam Hussein.

  • This made the UN aware that they had to make a greater effort to control chemical and biological weapons.

  • After War, Iraq was forced to destroy its chemical and biological weapons, but did not comply

  • No fly zones were created over Kuwait

Hussein vs. Weapons Inspectors


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Iran

Iran Map


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Table of Contents

  • The Shah Monarchy

  • Ayatollah Khomeini

  • Khomeini and Islamic Revolution

  • Iran-Iraq War

  • Contemporary Iran

    Divided

  • Iranian timeline


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The Shah Monarchy

  • “Shah” is Persian King, years of reign.

  • During 20th century Shah monarchy Muslims were not very religious.

  • Women had almost equal rights to men.

  • Trade was good, but Iran had economic problems.

  • Children ages 7-13 were required to go to school.

  • Under Shah, security strong.

  • Strong ally of US and Israel.


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Ayatollah Khomeini

  • For many years, opposition to corrupt and oppressive Shah reign.

  • Under Khomeini, Iran became an “Islamic Republic”, and an enemy of the US.

  • Revolution very popular with Iranians-between Shah and Khomeini.

  • Turned Iran away from the western World “in the name of Islam”. US seen as “Great Satan”.


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Khomeini & Islamic Revolution

  • Hostage Crisis.

  • He was the absolute and only Ruler for 10 years until 1989.

  • Followed the Shari'a laws to an extreme extent.

  • Rejection of West by embracing fundamentalist Islam.

  • Died in 1989.


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Iran - Iraq War

  • 1980 there was a war between Iran and Iraq-lasted 8 years.

  • Caused by differences between different ethnic groups, Iran:Persian, Iraq:Arab, as well as, border disagreements.

  • It was assumed by Iraq that Iran was weak after the Iranian Revolution.

  • Iran lost 600,000 Iranians, and the economic loss totaled 1.2 billion US dollars.

  • War finally ends in a stalemate.


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Contemporary Iran Divided

  • Controversy between Khatami and Khamenei.

  • Khatami wants Iran to be friendlier to the US and the western world. More freedom in Iran.

  • Khamenei wants Iran to be exactly the way Khomeini had it. US as “Great Satan,” Shari'a law.

  • Country divided.

  • Most Iranian support Khatami, but Khamenei supported by military and clerisy.

Khamenei

Controversy

Khatami


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Iranian Timeline

The Shahs

Islamic Revolution

Khomeini

DIED

Agree with

Controversy

Khatami

Khamenei


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Saudi Arabian Map

Saudi Arabia


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Table of Contents

  • Wahhabism/History

  • Monarchy

  • Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors

  • Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors

  • Persian Gulf Security

  • Mecca, holds the holiest shrine of Islam, the Kaaba.

  • Madina,is a scared city where Muhammad took refuge

  • Riyadh, is the capitol of Saudi Arabia


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Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors

  • Saudi Arabia status quo, rejects both Arab nationalism, Egypt under Nasser and Islamic fundamentalism, Iran under Khomeini.

  • Arab vs. Saudis: mutual enmity.


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Wahhabism/History

  • Movement in Islam from mid 18th century.

  • The Wahhabis formed a large tribe, and very strictly followed Islam, in vast empty deserts.

  • In 1802, the Wahhabis conquered Mecca, but in 1812, were driven out out of Mecca.

  • Because of their extreme attitude, the Wahhabis were founders of Saudi Arabia.

  • Eventually come to be rulers of Saudi Arabia.


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Monarchy

  • The house of Saud is the family that rules Saudi Arabia.

  • Monarchy started in 1932, when they conquered territories were unified, and Abdul Azin was named king.

  • Present king of Saudi Arabia: FAHD bin Abd al-Azin Al Saud.

  • Constitution: Governed according to Shari’a (Islamic Law); Basic Law that articulates governments rights and responsibilities (est. 1993).

  • Sauds use Islam as unifying idea for country


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Opec Oil; Saudis And Arab Neighbors

  • Happened during 1973, while the Yom Kippur war was happening in Israel.

  • Saudi Arabia played a leading role in an oil boycott against the Western countries that supported Israel. Gains Arab support

  • In March, 1974, the oil embargo ended.

  • This resulted in a strong increase in oil prices. They nearly quadrupled.Saudi Arabia becomes rich and powerful.


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Persian Security

  • On August 2, 1990, Iraq invades Kuwait

  • 1,000.000 Iraqi soldiers on Saudi Arabian border.

  • 4 days later on August 6, King FAHD meets with Richard Cheney, and requests military assistance form USA.

  • Allied Coalition defeats Iraq and Kuwait liberated.

  • Saudi Arabia safe, Persian Gulf free for oil shipping.

  • Continued presence of American troops very controversial inside Saudi Arabia.

  • Some Saudis call for overthrow of King, resort to terrorism against “infidels”






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