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The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Tools of Astronomy The Moon Sun-Earth-Moon System. Chap. 28. Objectives. Tools of Astronomy – 28.1. describe electro-magnetic radiation. explain how telescopes work describe space exploration. http://www.physics.unr.edu/cshirley/images.html.

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The sun earth moon system l.jpg

The Sun-Earth-Moon System

Tools of Astronomy

The Moon

Sun-Earth-Moon System

Chap. 28


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Objectives

Tools of Astronomy – 28.1

  • describe electro-magnetic radiation.

  • explain how telescopes work

  • describe space exploration

http://www.physics.unr.edu/cshirley/images.html



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  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)


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  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)

  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye


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  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)

  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye

  • Different light has different wavelengths


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  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)

  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye

  • Different light has different wavelengths

  • Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the the frequency


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  • Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)

  • Most ‘light’ cannot be seen by the human eye

  • Different light has different wavelengths

  • Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the shorter the frequency


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Yerkes observatory (WI), 1897


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  • Introduction


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  • Introduction

  • Purpose – to collect light and focus it

Globular Star Cluster M15, Milky Way


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  • Introduction

  • Purpose – to collect light and focus it

  • Telescopes magnify objects

This is the secondary function of a telescope


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  • Introduction

  • Types


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Refractor

http://www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Refractor

  • Uses glass lenses


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Refractor

  • Uses glass lenses

  • Often made from two lenses – an objective and an eyepiece

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Reflector

http://www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Reflector

  • Uses mirrors


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Reflector

  • Uses mirrors

  • Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Reflector

  • Uses mirrors

  • Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http://www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Benefits


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Benefits

  • Can utilize a variety of detectors


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Benefits

  • Can utilize a variety of detectors

  • Can focus more light than the eye


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  • Introduction

  • Types

  • Benefits

  • Can utilize a variety of detectors

  • Can focus more light than the eye

  • Can make time exposure photos

http://www.wam.umd.edu/~iblumgar/eclipse.html


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  • Location


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  • Location

  • Away from cities


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  • Location

  • Away from cities

  • On high mountains




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http://www.ucolick.org/~kibrick/

Keck Observatory – Mauna Kea

~14,000 feet


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  • Location

  • Other telescopes

  • Radio-telescopes collect .

http://pics.bothner.com/2002/RadioTelescope/


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  • Location

  • Other telescopes

  • Radio-telescopes collect radiowaves

  • Interferometry links multiple ________


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  • Location

  • Other telescopes

  • Radio-telescopes collect radiowaves

  • Interferometry links multiple telescopes





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  • Space telescopes

  • Spacecraft/probes


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  • Space telescopes

  • Spacecraft/probes

  • Space station



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Objectives

The Moon – 28.2

  • describe the develop-ment of exploration of the Moon.

  • identify features on the Moon.

  • explain the theories about how the Moon formed.


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

The first , launched by .


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

The first satellite, launched by Russia


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

first man in space, he was from .


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

Yuri Gagarin first man in space, he was from Russia.


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

  • Mercury (1961)

was the first American in space.


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

  • Mercury (1961)

Alan Shepard Jr was the first American in space.


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

  • Mercury (1961)

  • Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry people.


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

  • Mercury (1961)

  • Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry 2 people.


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

  • Mercury (1961)

  • Gemini (1963-1966)

  • Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, , on the moon.


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  • Sputnik I (1957)

  • Vostok 1 (1961)

  • Mercury (1961)

  • Gemini (1963-1966)

  • Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, Neil Armstrong, on the moon.



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  • Earth’s moon is larger than most

Only Jupiter and Saturn have larger moons.


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  • Earth’s moon is larger than most

  • Earth’s moon is farther than most

Most moons are closer to their planets.


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  • Earth’s moon is larger than most

  • Earth’s moon is farther than most

  • The moon is solid and rocky

Not icy or gaseous like many other moons.


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  • Earth’s moon is larger than most

  • Earth’s moon is farther than most

  • The moon is solid and rocky

  • Earth’s moon is one of the few moons of the inner planets.

Mercury and Venus have none, Mars’ moons are tiny



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  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)

Albedo describes amount of sunlight reflected.


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  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)

  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moon’s lack of .


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  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)

  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moon’s lack of an atmosphere.


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  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)

  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

  • Highlands

Light in color, mountainous, and cratered.


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  • Has relatively low albedo (7%)

  • Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

  • Highlands

  • Maria

Dark, smooth plains, associated with rilles (long, narrow straight valley


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  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.

Material expelled from crater. Long strands of ejecta are called rays.


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  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.

  • Moons craters are easier to see than Earth’s.

This is because there is more on Earth.


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  • Impact craters knock out ejecta.

  • Moons craters are easier to see than Earth’s.

This is because there is more weathering on Earth.



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  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.

Based on radioisotope dating of rocks.


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  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.

  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.

Most of the craters have dark ejecta meaning they’re old.


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  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.

  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.

  • This action produced regolith.

This is the loose, ground up moon rock.


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  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.

  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.

  • This action produced regolith.

  • Maria formed later from magma.

This explains the darker color.


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  • Believed to be 3.8 – 4.6 byo.

  • Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800 million years.

  • This action produced regolith.

  • Maria formed later from magma.

  • Flowing lava created rilles.

Not created by flowing water, but flowing lava.



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  • Capture Theory

Moon formed elsewhere and was captured by Earth’s gravity.


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  • Capture Theory

  • How did object slow down?


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  • Capture Theory

  • How did object slow down?

  • What explains similar composition to Earth’s?


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  • Capture Theory

  • Simultaneous Formation Theory

Moon and Earth formed in space at same time, near each other


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  • Capture Theory

  • Simultaneous Formation Theory

  • Explains same composition and proximity.


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  • Capture Theory

  • Simultaneous Formation Theory

  • Explains same composition and proximity.

  • Does not explain Earth’s higher iron content.


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  • Impact Theory

Earth was hit by Mars-size object, and layers of crust/mantle material were ejected.


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  • Impact Theory

  • Moon received iron-poor material.


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  • Impact Theory

  • Moon received iron-poor material.

  • Heat evaporated water from moon.



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Objectives

Sun-Moon-Earth System – 28.3

  • Identify the relative positions and motions of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon

  • Describe the phases of the Moon.

  • Explain eclipses of the Sun and Moon.


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We are moving at a speed of mph around the sun (and rotating about mph).


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We are moving at a speed of 67,000 mph around the sun (and rotating about 1000 mph).


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  • Evidence of motion

How do we know there is motion?


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Apparent motion of sun


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Apparent motion of sun

  • Apparent motion of moon

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/20jun_moonillusion.html


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Apparent motion of sun

  • Apparent motion of moon

  • Apparent motion of stars

http://www.sufism.org/society/articles/sema_camille.html


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This means it appears to move º/minute.


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This means it appears to move 0.25 º/minute.


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Rate of motion

  • How do we know Earth is moving?

. . .and not the rest of the universe?


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Rate of motion

  • How do we know Earth is moving?

  • A Foucault pendulum

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foucault_pendulum


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  • Evidence of motion

  • Rate of motion

  • How do we know Earth is moving?

  • A Foucault pendulum

  • Coriolis effect

http://www.atmos.ucla.edu



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  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic


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  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic

  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

It tilts by .


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  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic

  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

23.5º

It tilts by 23.5º.


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  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic

  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

  • In the Northern hemisphere the Sun’s altitude in the sky is higher in the .


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Altitude is measured in degrees from the observer’s horizon to the object..


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  • Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic

  • Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its ecliptic

  • In the Northern hemisphere the Sun’s altitude in the sky is higher in the summer.


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  • The solstices


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  • The solstices

  • Summer


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)

  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)

  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)

  • Occurs around June 21


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • “Longest day” of the year (in Northern hemisphere)

  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)

  • Occurs around June 21

  • Sun never sets in Arctic circle



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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)

  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)

  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)

  • Occurs around December 21


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)

  • Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)

  • Occurs around December 21

  • Sun never rises in Arctic circle



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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Equinoxes


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Equinoxes

  • Occur at midpoint between solstices


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Equinoxes

  • Occur at midpoint between solstices

  • Sun directly overhead at equator


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  • The solstices

  • Summer

  • Winter

  • Equinoxes

  • Occur at midpoint between solstices

  • Sun directly overhead at equator

  • Both hemispheres receive equal sunlight


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Self Check

  • At which point is summer solstice?


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Self Check

  • At which point is summer solstice?

  • At which point is the vernal equinox



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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • New moon

The moon is between Earth and the Sun – we don’t see the lit surface


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • New moon

  • Waxing crescent

Waxing means increasing


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • New moon

  • Waxing crescent

  • First quarter

Observed ¼ of the way through a lunar month


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • New moon

  • Waxing crescent

  • First quarter

  • Waxing gibbous

Gibbous means more than ½ but less than full


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • Full moon

The moon is on opposite sides of the Earth from the Sun – we see the entire lit surface


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • Full moon

  • Waning gibbous

Waning means decreasing in size/intensity


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • Full moon

  • Waning gibbous

  • Third quarter

Observed ¾ into the lunar month


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Go to diagram

  • Phases of the Moon

  • Names of the Phases

  • Full moon

  • Waning gibbous

  • Third quarter

  • Waning crescent


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  • Names of the Phases

  • Synchronous Rotation

For each revolution of the moon it makes one rotation.



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  • Timing

  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its (a lunar month).


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  • Timing

  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).

  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = º.


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  • Timing

  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).

  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = 13º.

  • This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to ‘catch up to the moon’.

Each night the moonrise occurs about minutes later.


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  • Timing

  • It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its orbit (a lunar month).

  • During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its orbit which = 13º.

  • This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to ‘catch up to the moon’.

Each night the moonrise occurs about 50 minutes later.



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  • Solar Eclipse


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  • Solar Eclipse

  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth

June 29, 2006 Solar Eclipse


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  • Solar Eclipse

  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth

  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no sun ( Eclipse)


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  • Solar Eclipse

  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth

  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no sun (Total Eclipse)


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  • Solar Eclipse

  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth

  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

  • The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see some of the sun ( Eclipse)


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  • Solar Eclipse

  • The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the Earth

  • The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

  • The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see some of the sun (Partial Eclipse)




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  • Solar Eclipse

  • Annular Eclipse

Occurs when the Earth/Moon system are separated by maximum distance.


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  • Solar Eclipse

  • Annular Eclipse

  • Apogee

Furthest distance between Moon and Earth.


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  • Solar Eclipse

  • Annular Eclipse

  • Apogee

  • Perigee

Smallest distance between Moon and Earth.


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  • Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the .


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  • Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the Sun.


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  • Lunar Eclipse

  • These last longer than Solar eclipses because. . .


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  • Lunar Eclipse

  • These last longer than Solar eclipses because. . .

  • Even though moon passes through umbra, it is not completely dark because. . .




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