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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware. Tuesday February 7, 2006. Reminders. Reading For next week Fundamentals text, Chapter Two, Software section Homework Homework One due Friday, 2/10 by 5pm Submit to Mgt20600.01, .02, .03, or .04 dropbox

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reminders
Reminders
  • Reading
    • For next week
      • Fundamentals text, Chapter Two, Software section
  • Homework
    • Homework One due Friday, 2/10 by 5pm
      • Submit to Mgt20600.01, .02, .03, or .04 dropbox
  • Next week’s class session: Software
information systems the system of hardware components
Information Systems:The System of Hardware Components

Input Devices

Memory

and

Processor

Storage

and

Output Devices

input devices
Input Devices
  • A huge variety to choose from
  • Must match input device to task
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
      • Biometric mice
    • Microphones/voice recognition
    • Touch screens
    • Bar-code scanners
    • Point-of-sale devices
    • Radio frequency ID chips
  • Examples
    • Self check-out counter input devices?
    • Cell phone input devices?
    • PDA input devices?
    • PC input devices?
processing the inputs
Processing the Inputs
  • Processing device works hand in hand with
  • Memory (book uses primary storage as a synonym for this)
    • To process
      • Data transferred to the system by the input devices
      • Instructions from the operating system and software applications
processing the inputs the processor
Processing the Inputs: The Processor
  • Processors can vary according to
    • Size – how much data they can process at a time
    • Speed – how fast they execute instructions
    • Coordinated or multi-processing – how many processors work together
    • The materials from which they are made
    • How fast they can communicate with memory and with each other
    • Of course this affects the cost!
  • Intel’s Multi-Core Processors
  • The future
    • Nanoswitches (2015)
    • Spin transistors
    • Crossbar latches
  • The trick is to buy the right processor for the task at hand!
  • Examples
    • WalMart’s transaction processing system
    • Individual executive’s spreadsheet analysis
processing the inputs memory
Processing the Inputs: Memory
  • Memory varies according to
    • Size – how much capacity it has
    • Volatility – whether you lose what’s in it when the electricity goes off
    • Function – ROM (read-only memory) holds permanent instructions whereas RAM (random access memory) holds temporary data and instructions
    • Speed - How fast it can communicate with the processor (bus speed)
    • How close it is located to the processor (cache memory)
  • Again, you must match your memory purchase to the tasks you intend to perform
storing the output
Storing the Output
  • Secondary or long-term storage is used to permanently store data or output
  • Greater capacity and greater economy than memory
  • Many different types of secondary storage devices that vary by
    • Capacity
    • Cost
    • Speed of data retrieval
    • Access method
storing the output14
Storing the Output
  • Secondary storage devices
    • Hard disk (magnetic disk)
    • Floppy disk (magnetic disk)
    • Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)
    • CD-recordable (CD-R) discs
    • CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs
    • Digital versatile disc (DVD)
    • Memory cards
    • Expandable storage, i.e., zip drives
    • Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks (RAID)
    • Magnetic tapes
    • Storage Area Network (SAN)
  • The Future: Holographic Disks
    • Can attain far higher density of data storage than standard magnetic disk drives
    • Data stored as a holograph throughout the polymer material that makes up a disk
  • The Future: Blu-ray Disc or HD-DVD as replacements for DVD’s
  • Guess what! You have to match your storage device to the tasks you are undertaking!
displaying the output
Displaying the Output
  • There are also countless ways to display the output of your information processing
  • Output device types
    • Computer screen
    • Printer
    • Mobile device
    • Telephone
    • Head phones
  • A look at the future: Electronic paper
  • Need I say it again! Match the output device to your needs and budget!
information systems the system of hardware components20
Information Systems:The System of Hardware Components

Input Devices

Memory

and

Processor

Storage

and

Output Devices

computer system types
Computer System Types
  • Very often all the input, output, processing, memory, and storage devices will come bundled together in a computer system you buy as a whole
  • The major computer systems types are
    • Handheld computers
    • Portable computers
    • Thin client
    • Desktop computers
    • Workstations
    • Servers
    • Mainframe computers
    • Supercomputers
  • Each type has a very different role in life!
  • Your job, of course, is to choose which best fits your organization’s needs and budget
comparison of major computer system types
Comparison of Major Computer System Types

MIPS: Millions of instructions per second

Teraflop: A trillion floating point operations per second

heterogeneous it environments
Heterogeneous IT Environments
  • Corporate IT infrastructure usually includes many different types of computers running different types of software
  • Hannaford Brothers Co., $5 billion grocery retailer
    • 2 IBM mainframes
    • 200 Unix AIX servers
    • 250 Windows servers
mobile devices on the corporate radar
Mobile Devices on the Corporate Radar
  • Wireless laptop
  • Handheld computer
  • Wireless email device
  • Cell phone
  • Smart phone
  • Camera phones
  • Tablet PC’s
  • Handheld scanners
  • RFID devices
  • Hybrid Wi-Fi/cell phones
mobile devices in the corporate environment
Mobile Devices in the Corporate Environment
  • Concerns
    • Data carried from within the protected confines of the corporate computing infrastructure
    • Administrative costs of providing support for many different platforms
  • Good mobile device management strategy
    • Ascertain if there is a business need for the device
      • Benefit of using the tool versus the added overhead cost of accommodating the tool
    • Segment employees by job function
    • Decide on list of devices that IT will (and will not) support
      • Standardize on particular devices
    • Devise a training plan for users and help desk staffers
    • Develop enforcement mechanisms that will ensure device security
      • Ability to remotely perform a hard reset of a mobile device
      • Encrypt wireless transmissions
      • Power-on passwords
  • UPS example
    • If user’s primary need is access to email and the Web, she gets a smart phone
    • If user’s primary need is access to business applications to do her job, she gets a laptop
mobile devices in the corporation
Mobile Devices in the Corporation
  • Accepting payments on the go
    • Cell phone and card swipe attachment
    • Handheld with built-in swipe slot
    • Used by merchants who want to accept payment on the go like
      • Plumbers
      • Limousine drivers
      • Flea market proprietors
      • Restaurants
      • Car rental firms
      • Sonic drive-in restaurants
mobile devices in the corporation28
Mobile Devices in the Corporation
  • GPS-enabled phones or handhelds
    • Used by SuperShuttle to equip its drivers to improve scheduling capabilities and customer service
      • Driver benefits
        • Dispatchers could guide them around traffic jams
        • Drivers could choose fares by finding the closest ones on a GPS map
        • Drivers had more control
    • Used by Del-Air, a Florida heating, ventilation, air conditioning contractor
      • Better way to track its technicians
      • Instituted bonus pay related to quick work – validated by GPS data
mobile devices in the corporation29
Mobile Devices in the Corporation
  • Wireless in the warehouse
    • Laptops, handhelds, smart phones
      • Can be used to monitor almost everything that moves in a manufacturing environment
      • More efficient
        • Inventory management
        • Enterprise asset management and maintenance
        • Order fulfillment
        • Field-support operations
thin clients
Thin Clients
  • Computers connected to a server in a network and have no hard drives
  • Thin-client sales grew 46% from 2004 to 2005
  • Advantages
    • Support telecommuting
    • Better security
    • Easier administration
      • Faster and easier backups
      • Efficient disaster recovery
    • Less expensive
      • Can cut costs up to 70%
      • Thin client model has 35% to 40% lower TCO overall
    • Centralized data
thin client computing
Thin Client Computing

What is the most compelling business value case for thin client computing?

personal computers
Personal Computers
  • Demise of the Desktop?
    • Laptop to Desktop ratio in corporations
      • 1 in 5 in 1999
      • 1 in 3 in 2005
      • 1 in 2 in next few years
  • Why?
    • Mobility!
      • Outside and inside of workplace
    • Changes in work habits
      • Used on the road, in the home, into meetings
      • Facilitate collaboration as well as email access
    • Wireless connectivity improvements
    • Battery life improvements
    • Price/Performance gap between laptops and desktops has narrowed considerably
    • Availability of workstation-class laptops for computing intensive tasks like software development and computer-aided design
    • Laptop reliability has improved
  • Laptop concerns
    • Security!
pc virtualization
PC Virtualization
  • PC hardware moved into data center as part of PC blades
    • Fit into a chassis that can be centrally managed
    • Several users can share a single blade
    • Simplifies PC management
  • Thin client on desktop that functions as an extended keyboard, monitor, and mouse
servers
Servers
  • Midrange computers in data center that provide applications, web services, and storage to client devices
  • Defining features
    • Use faster, multi-core processors than pc’s
      • 64 bit processors
    • Often run Unix or Linux as their operating systems
    • Often deployed in server farms or blades for easy management and flexibility
    • Less costly than mainframes
    • Ability to load balance
mainframes
Mainframes
  • Large, very fast computers that support the enterprise
    • Many legacy systems run on mainframes
    • Known for reliability and scalability
    • Can replace many midrange servers and can cut IT staff costs as a result
mainframe example
Mainframe Example
  • AARP (American Association of Retired Persons)
    • Members
      • 35 million members
      • 76 million baby-boomers preparing for retirement
    • Central customer database
      • Can be accessed by
        • Members
        • Trading partners
          • Insurance providers
          • Retirement communities
    • Technology
      • Mainframe used for customer database
        • Centralized
          • Member information can be maintained and secured independently of the numerous IT applications that use it
        • Reliable
        • Scalable
          • Will support increasing numbers of transactions as membership grows
        • Continuously updated
          • Makes it easier to market products and services to its members
        • Application-independent
          • Common interface to the database for suppliers
          • Standard method for integrating applications with the database
what a supercomputer looks like
What a SuperComputer Looks Like

Terabyte: A thousand billion bytes or a thousand gigabytes

Gigaflop: One billion floating point operations per second

corporate supercomputing
Corporate Supercomputing
  • Ping Inc., golf club maker
    • Uses supercomputer to run simulations of golf club designs
    • Has drastically reduced development time
  • Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
    • Uses supercomputing for tire simulations
    • Reduces amount of money spent on building physical tire prototypes, from 40% to 15% of the research and development budget
  • Supercomputing also supports
    • Digital animation
    • Bioinformatics
    • RFID chips and the huge databases they create
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