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Religions of China. Confucianism Daoism Buddhism Folk religions Islam Judaism Christianity. Confucianism. Founded by Confucius (551-479 B.C.) Ideas compiled by followers in the Analects Emphasized man improving himself Teachings reinforced patriarchal system and centralized government

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Religions of China

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Religions of China

Confucianism

Daoism

Buddhism

Folk religions

Islam

Judaism

Christianity


Confucianism

  • Founded by Confucius (551-479 B.C.)

  • Ideas compiled by followers in the Analects

  • Emphasized man improving himself

  • Teachings reinforced patriarchal system and centralized government

  • Used rituals to the state & ancestors to promote / enhance this order


The Confucian Ethic

Emphasis on Family

Five Relationships

Reciprocity

Emphasis on education to become a fully realized human being

Respectful

Tolerant

Trustworthy

Generous


Moral Dimension

“Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire”

The Analects, XII, 17


Political Dimension

“To govern is to correct. If you set an example by being correct, who would dare to remain incorrect”.

The Analects, XII:17


Spiritual Dimension

“You do not understand even life. How can you understand death?”

The Analects, XI;12


Yan Liben (ca. 650)

Emperor Taizong giving audience ambassador from Tibet


Daoism

  • Founded by Laotzu (“Old Master”)

  • Ideas compiled by followers in Daodejing

  • Emphasized happiness by conforming with the way (Dao) of nature

  • Desire to escape social obligations

  • Promoted life especially through intuitive methods, not logic, reason and study


Taoist Values

  • Nature befriended, not conquered

  • Eschews dichotomies

  • Pacifism

  • Spontaneity & naturalness


Types of Taoists

  • Philosophical or Literati Taoists

    (Wu Wei)

  • Medical/self-cultivating Taoists

    (Maximize Qi with Qigong

  • Religious/communal Taoists

    (Harnessing higher powers for humane ends in monasteries and temples)


Incense burner from tomb of Prince Liu Sheng, Han dynasty, (113 BCE) bronze inlaid with gold, 10 &1/2" high


Rubbing from Wu Family Tomb, Han dynasty

(ca. 147-151 CE) Shandong province


Model of a House

1st century CE

In Nelson-Atkins


Folk Religions

Kitchen God & Wife


Understanding Buddhism


Buddhist Values

  • Compassion

  • Suppression of ego

  • Living for others

Buddhists Avoid

  • Delusion

  • Craving

  • Hostility


5 precepts of Buddhism

  • Do not kill

  • Do not steal

  • Do not lie

  • Do not be unchaste

  • Do not do drugs or drink


Other Axial Age Responses

  • Hinduism developed by Brahmin priests in northern India - 500 BCE

  • Caste system in place

  • Based on the Upanishads:

    • promoted asceticism as the way

    • gave central concepts


Central Hindu Concepts

  • Brahman: the universal spiritual reality behind all perceptions

  • Atman: the human soul

  • Karma: “actions have consequences” and affect the rate of enlightenment and is different from the idea of “sin”


Goals of the Ascetics

  • Control bodily desires leading to mystic ecstasy

  • Increase good reduce bad karma

  • Unify Atman and the Brahman =

  • Enlightenment


Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1645-652


Further developments: Buddhism

Siddhartha Gautama (563 – 483 BCE)

  • Searched for enlightenment

  • Found life clouded by suffering

  • Suffering ended and salvation attained / cycle of souls ended by moderation = Four Noble Truths


Four Noble Truths

  • Life is suffering

  • Desire causes suffering

  • Suffering stopped by non-desiring

  • Desire can be stopped by meditation and following the Eightfold Path


TheEightfold Path

  • Right views, Right aspirations

  • Right speech, Right conduct

  • Right livelihood, Right effort

  • Right mindedness, Right rapture

    So knowledge and good habits ends suffering and rebirth


Early Buddhist Society

  • No fixed hierarchies or priests, but individual responsibility

  • Buddha did not write things down

  • His students spread his teachings on:

    • Transmigration of souls

    • Effects of Karma

    • Four Noble Truths & Eight Fold Path

    • Nirvana: “blowing out” of the “ego”


Innovative Doctrine

  • Favored individual self-examination

  • Appealed to those outside of the aristocracy

  • Promoted education to all wanting it

  • No caste system / “gender-less”

  • Brahmans hostile to egalitarian and de-emphasis of rituals


Buddhist Schools Develop

  • Hinayana: “The Lesser Vehicle” no works after 480 B.C. accepted in Ceylon, Indo-China

  • Mahayana: “The Greater Vehicle”

    • Tibetan Buddhism, Chan, Zen, etc. in East Asia


BODHISATTVA

BUDDHA


Buddhist Popularity

  • Declined in India because lost imperial patronage in 400 CE

  • Successful at times in China, Nepal, Indo-China, Korea and Japan from 1st century CE onward

  • Followers increasing in the West now


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