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Stan Kenton 1912-1979. survived the decline of the swing era Ellington Basie Herman Kenton Kenton drew from 3rd stream influences (a merger of classical and jazz combining classical and jazz compositional features uses orchestral instruments imitates classical music

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Stan Kenton 1912-1979

  • survived the decline of the swing era

    • Ellington

    • Basie

    • Herman

    • Kenton

  • Kenton drew from 3rd stream influences (a merger of classical and jazz

    • combining classical and jazz compositional features

    • uses orchestral instruments

    • imitates classical music

      • example: “Mirage” written by Pete Rugolo for Stan Kenton Orchestra (tape 3 #13)

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Stan Kenton

  • called his band “neophonic”

  • new bands formed based on hard driving swing

    • Buddy Rich

    • Maynard Ferguson

    • Toshiko Akiyoshi - Lew Tabackin

  • Kenton’s band was called “progressive”

  • very successful in music education

  • became more abstract

    • “Chorale for Brass, Piano, and Bongo”(“Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celeste”)

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Stan Kenton

  • 1954 Kenton was considered to be one who had “contributed the most to modern American music in the Twentieth Century”

  • reputation for leading the loudest band

  • most important works were the non-swing concert pieces

  • a founder of the college stage band movement

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Kenton Recordings

  • “New Directions in Music”

  • “New Concepts of Artistry in Rhythm”

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Cool Questions

  • The term for modern style that sounds more subdued than bebop

  • Cool Jazz

  • Important influences on the cool jazz style included

  • Count Basie and Lester Young

  • Among the first musicians to create the cool style were

  • Lennie Tristano. Lee Konitz, and Miles Davis

  • The “Birth of the Cool” band was that of

  • Miles Davis in 1949-50

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Cool Questions

  • With quartets that did not use piano, _______is identified with West Coast Jazz.

  • Gerry Mulligan

  • The most famous cool jazz musician was

  • Dave Brubeck

  • The best known string of modern jazz big bands were led by

  • Stan Kenton

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The Tenor Saxophone

  • became one of the three most important horns in jazz (along with trumpet and alto sax)

  • evolved from dance orchestras and marching bands

  • not used too much in the 1920’s in New Orleans and Chicago styles

  • Coleman Hawkins was the first important tenor sax soloist

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Free Jazz

  • The 1960s - called avant-garde or “free Jazz”

  • Leading figures

    • Ornette Coleman (b. 1930)

    • John Coltrane (1927-1967)

    • Cecil Taylor (b. 1933)

    • Archie Shepp (b. 1937)

    • Charles Mingus (1922-1979)

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John Coltrane

  • His genius is his technique

  • sheets of sound

  • extended the range of the instrument

  • Also used soprano sax

  • Noted for:

    • Innovative approach to improvisation

    • Unorthodox handling of rhythms and form

    • Use of African, Arabic, Indian, and other non-Western elements

    • Deep spirituality

  • The three levels of his development are represented by

    • Giant Steps (1959)

    • A Love Supreme (1964)

    • Meditation (1965)

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  • b. Hamlet, NC, 1926

  • studied alto sax in high school

  • attended Granoff Studios and the Ornstein School of Music in Philadelphia

  • played clarinet in the Navy Band

  • 1949 performing with Dizzy

  • 1952 joined Earl Bostic and worked with Johnny Hodges

  • released by Hodges because of alcohol

  • 1955 married, joined Miles Davis

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  • first real exposure came with the recordings and performances with Miles from 1955-1957

  • periods of abstinence and indulgence

  • left Davis and went to Philadelphia

  • revelation from God

  • Joined Monk in 1957, returned to Davis

  • formed his own quartet in 1960

    • McCoy Tyner, piano; Elvin Jones, drums; Steve Davis, bass

  • greatest recordings with this group were expressions of his belief in God

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The Move to Free Jazz

  • 1965 Jones and Tyner left the group

  • Coltrane intensified his search for freer musical structures

  • formed a new group

    • Pharoah Sanders, tenor; Rashied Ali, drums; Alice McLeod, piano

    • Coltrane studied percussion

    • this was called the “ClassicQuartet”

  • moved to freer organization - not popular

  • chaotic

  • last recordings bear little relationship to his earlier ones

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The Move to Freer Jazz

  • recording Om contains chanted words from Eastern literature

  • Leonard Feather and John Tynan called Coltrane “antijazz”

  • last recordings - rhythm and inflection took priority over traditional melody and harmony

  • Ali’s drumming blurred the beat until it disappeared

  • Coltrane arrived at a totally free jazz structure

  • greatest success was in Japan in the summer of 1966

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Coltrane in the Miles Davis Sextet

  • “So What”

  • John Coltrane, tenor sax

  • soloists:

    • Bill Evans, p

    • Paul Chambers, b

    • Miles Davis, t

    • Coltrane, ts

    • Adderley, as

    • Evans, p

    • Chambers, b

  • recorded 3/2/59

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John Coltrane Quartet

  • “Alabama” SCCJ disc V, track 6

  • begins with a solem meditation, moves to prayer, hope, affirmation, prayer

  • desegregation problems in Alabama

  • Coltrane said “It represents, musically, something that I saw down there, translated into music from inside me.”

  • soloist: Coltrane

  • recorded 11/18/63

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  • Ornette Coleman was one of the first to experiment with free jazz

  • the four common musical procedures in free jazz

    • tone color becomes a structural element

    • a new emphasis is placed on collective improvisation

    • new roles are assigned to soloists and to those playing accompaniments

    • all traditional musical rules are open to question

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  • Coleman played with a white plastic saxophone

    • nasal, shallow sound better suited his style

  • dismissed as a poor player (excessive inflections and the way he blew the horn)

  • it was a personalized technique

  • his sound was similar to the early blues singers

  • he was accepted by R & B bands

  • not accepted by the be-bop musicians (out of tune)

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Collective Improvisation

  • free jazz restored this concept which was almost lost since the passing of Dixieland

  • harmonies and melodies not governed by formal chord progressions

  • Coleman seldom used any “comping” instruments (piano, guitar) - too restricting

  • any soloist could lead the bass to any harmony

  • one thought springs from another

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  • collective improvisation means an end to the traditional role of the soloist

  • all performers are free to play any time they wished

  • they could decide when and what to play

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New musical priorities

  • question traditional rules

  • do not abandon the tradition but, rather, lean on it, especially in the blues

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“Lonely Woman” (1959) SCCJ

  • example of free-flowing harmonic structure

  • Ornette Coleman, as; Don Cherry, t; Charlie Haden, b; Billy Higgins, d

  • follows the traditional AABA structure

  • reminds the listener of rural blues performances

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“Free Jazz” (1960) SCCJ

  • Ornette Coleman, as; Donald Cherry & Freddie Hubbard, t; Eric Dolphy, bc; Scott La Faro & Charlie Haden, b; Billy Higgins & Ed Blackwell, d

  • denser and more complex

  • attains the harmonic and melodic freedom

  • few traditional melodies or harmonies

  • the instruments accompanying Coleman freely respond to his ideas

  • swinging rhythm feeling is maintained (would not be in freer styles of jazz)

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Ornette Coleman 1930 -

  • b. Fort Worth, Texas in 1930

  • mother was a seamstress; father died when he was 7

  • age 14 - mother gave him an alto sax

  • studied with his cousin and at high school

  • age 16 - playing in the high school band during the day and in R&B nightclubs at night

  • listened to and copied other players

  • 1949 - joined a traveling minstrel show “Silas Green from New Orleans”

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Ornette Coleman

  • left in LA; could not get a job

  • baby sitter, elevator operator, porter, stock clerk

  • married Jayne Cortez

  • met Don Cherry

  • small group of musicians (Haden, Don Payne, Walter Norris, Ed Blackwell and Billy Higgins) practiced in a garage

  • 2/1959 - recorded

  • interested the Percy Heath, b (MJQ)

  • Lenox School of Jazz

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Ornette Coleman

  • graduated in 1959, opened at the Five Spot

  • plastic sax and pocket trumpet

  • became the rage of NY - contract w/Atlantic Records

  • 1962 raised his fees

  • 1965 two new instruments - trumpet and violin

  • European tour in 1965

  • called free jazz “Harmelodic”

  • First jazz performer to receive a Guggenheim grant - symphonic - opera

  • “Skies of America”

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Ornette Coleman

  • remains in NY

  • does not perform much

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  • John Coltrane became known to a wider audience from 1955 when he joined the group of bandleader__________.

  • Miles Davis

  • Two non-Bebop-derived approaches Coltrane took in the 1960s include FREE and________.


  • What instrument was Coltrane particularly noted for popularizing?

  • the soprano sax

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  • What is Albert Ayler’s primary instrument?

  • tenor sax

  • What is Sun Ra’s primary instrument?

  • piano

  • Charles Mingus was best-known as a bandleader, composer-arranger and as a_____.

  • bassist

  • AACM stands for_________.

  • Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians

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Cecil Taylor

  • Stockhausen, Stravinsky, Schoenberg

  • highly regarded

  • b. Long Island, 1933

  • both grandmothers were Native Americans, father’s family was Scotch

  • studied piano at age 5; also studied percussion

  • 1951 - moved to Boston, degree in composition from NEC

  • studied piano, arranging, harmony

  • said he learned more from listening to the Duke than he did in class

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Cecil Taylor

  • tone clusters

  • exploits the piano’s percussion ability

  • uses fists and elbows

  • 1960s and 1970s refused to abandon his kind of music

  • engagements separated by long periods of disagreeable jobs

  • taught courses in black music at the University of Wisconsin in 1971, Artist in Resident at Antioch College 1972-3, Guggenheim Fellowship in 1973, and Honorary Doctorate of Music from NEC in 1977

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Cecil Taylor

  • Exercises the right to determine the working conditions

    • Pianos of the best quality (96 key Bösendorfer)

    • Extensive rehearsal schedule

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“Enter Evening” (1966)

  • The musicians:

    • Cecil Taylor, piano, bells

    • Eddie Gale Stevens, trumpet

    • Jimmy Lyons, alto sax

    • Ken McIntyre, alto sax, oboe, bass clarinet

    • Henry Grimes, bass

    • Alan Silva, bass

    • Andrew Cyrille, drums

  • The music

    • “Third Stream” jazz

    • great variety of musical texture

    • the players react to each other free of harmony, meter and other jazz idioms

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Marty Ehrlich

  • born in St Paul, Minnesota, 1955

  • Began playing clarinet at an early age in Louisville, Kentucky

  • Moved to St. Louis at age 10, began studying clarinet with members of the St Louis Symphony Orchestra and to also play saxophone

  • Became involved with a community of poets and musicians working to expand the contexts and languages of improvised music

  • Black Artist Group (BAG) was a major influence on these artists, many of who had been members of BAG

  • Performed often on radio and in concert with The Human Arts Ensemble

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Marty Ehrlich

  • 1973 attended the New England Conservatory of Music

  • Graduated with honors in Jazz Performance and Saxophone

  • His teachers there included the then president of NEC, Gunther Schuller

  • Became the first Jazz Major to win the conservatory's Chadwick Medal for Outstanding Achievement

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Marty Ehrlich

  • Moved to New York in 1978

  • 1979 performed over 30 nights at the Village Vanguard with George Russell's Living Time Orchestra

  • Toured Europe for the first time with Anthony Braxton's Creative Music Orchestra

  • Worked with saxophonist Julius Hemphill

  • Appears on close to 100 CD's with these artists: Jaki Byard, Butch Morris, John Zorn, and others

  • Performed with numerous classical ensembles, including the New York City Opera, the New York City Ballet, the Lincoln Center Chamber Players, and the St. Luke's Orchestra

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Marty Ehrlich

  • Received three composer fellowships from the New York Foundation for the Arts

  • Two grants from the National Endowment for the Arts

  • Two commissioning grants from the Mary Flagler Charitable Trust

  • Touring grants from Arts International

  • Composition fellow at the Civitella Ranieri Arts Center in Italy

  • Blue Mountain Center in New York

  • Composer-in -Residence at the Isabella Stuart Gardner Museum in Boston

  • Peter Ivers Visiting Artist at Harvard University

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Marty Ehrlich

  • Since 1977, Ehrlich has been actively promoting the music of the late Julius Hemphill

    • An original member of Hemphill's Sextet, Ehrlich has continued the group's performing, functioning as its musical director

    • The Julius Hemphill Sextet released a critically acclaimed recording of previously unrecorded Hemphill Compositions called At Dr. King's Table.  

  • New England Conservatory's Outstanding Alumni Award,

  • Down Beat's Talent Deserving Wider Recognition (TDWR) for clarinet

  • Wind Player of the Year from the Jazz Journalists Association

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Emergency Peace

  • “Emergency Peace evokes a feeling music can give. The more the concept of peace is used in explicitly absurd ways by societal leaders, often in the service of the call to arms for another emergency war, the more it grows in immediacy as an imperative in one’s imagination” - Marty Ehrlich

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Emergency Peace

  • The players:

    • Marty Ehrlich, clarinet, bass clarinet, flute, wooden flutes, alto sax

    • Abdul Wadud, cello

    • Lindsey Horner, bass

    • Muhal Richard Abrams, piano

  • The Music:

    • Emergency Peace

    • Dusk

    • The Painter

    • the tucked sleeve of a one-armed boy

    • Unison

    • Double Dance

    • Circle the Heart

    • Charlie the Parker

    • Tribute

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Emergency Peace

  • The Recording:

    • Marty Ehrlich and The Dark Woods EnsembleEmergency PeaceNW 80409 - 2

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Pliant Plaint

  • Pliant Plaint mixes swing, double-time, stop-time, two-beat, shuffle, and textural rhythms. Six distinct melodic phrases move over or within these rhythms in a “pliant” manner. This was a commission from the Musicians of Brooklyn Initiative (MOBI)

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Pliant Plaint

  • The band:

    • The New York Composers Orchestra

      • The New York Composers Orchestra was formed in 1986 by composers Wayne Horvitz and Robin Holcomb. The NYCO provides a regular performing ensemble for composers wishing to write a jazz instrumentation without being confined to traditional notions of "jazz" and "big band" styles.

  • The Recording:

    • The New York Composers OrchestraNew World Records/Countercurrents NW 397-2

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At Dr. King’s Table

  • Composition becomes important

  • The musicians preferred to be called improvisers rather than jazzmen or composers

  • NW 80524-2

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Julius Hemphill 1938-1995

  • Hemphill founded the World Saxophone Quartet in 1976

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Muhal Richard Abrams

  • 1930 - born in Chicago

  • Studied piano at Chicago Musical College and Governors State University

  • predominately a self-taught musician

  • 1950 - began writing arrangements for the King Fleming Band

  • Played in the hard-bop band “Modern Jazz Two + Three”

  • 1961 - founded the “Experimental Band” which was the precursor to the musicians’ cooperative Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) - he was the co-fouonder

  • 1970 moved to New York

  • Performed and recorded solo piano and big band

  • Recorded for Delmark, Black Saint, and Arista Novus

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Muhal Richard Abrams

  • “One Line, Two Views” NW 80469-2

  • Textures 95The Prism 3Tribute to Julius Hemphill and Don PullenOne Line, Two Views11 Over 4Ensemble Song

  • Personnel

    • Muhal Richard Abrams, piano, synth, rain stick percussion, voiceMark Feldman, violin, percussion, voiceTony Cedras, accordion, percussion, voiceMarty Ehrlich, alto sax, bass clarinet, percussion, voicePatience Higgins, tenor sax, bass clarinet, percussion, voiceAnne LeBaron, harp, percussion, voiceEddie Allen, trumpet, percussion, voiceLindsey Horner, bass, percussion, voiceBryan Carrott, vibraphone, percussion, voiceReggie Nicholson, drums, percussion, voice