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Electronic Commerce Ninth Edition. Chapter 6 Social Networking, Mobile Commerce, and Online Auctions. Learning Objectives. In this chapter, you will learn about: Social networking and online business activities Using mobile devices to do business online

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Electronic commerce ninth edition l.jpg

Electronic CommerceNinth Edition

Chapter 6Social Networking, Mobile Commerce, and Online Auctions


Learning objectives l.jpg
Learning Objectives

In this chapter, you will learn about:

Social networking and online business activities

Using mobile devices to do business online

Online auctions and auction-related businesses

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition

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From Virtual Communities to Social Networks

Online Web communities

Not limited by geography

Individuals and companies with common interests

Meet online and discuss issues, share information, generate ideas, and develop valuable relationships

Companies make money by serving as relationship facilitators

Combine Internet’s transaction cost-reduction potential with a communication facilitator role

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Virtual Communities

Virtual community (Web community, online community)

Gathering place for people and businesses

No physical existence

Early virtual communities

Bulletin board systems (BBSs)

Revenue source: monthly fees and selling advertising

Usenet newsgroups

Message posting areas on usenets

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Virtual Communities (cont’d.)

Current forms

Web chat rooms

Sites devoted to specific topics or general exchange of information, photos, videos

People connect and discuss common issues, interests

Considerable social interaction

Relationship-forming activities

Similar to physical communities

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Early Web Communities

1985: WELL (“whole earth ‘lectronic link”)

Monthly fee to participate in forums and conferences

1999 bought by Salon.com

1995: Beverly Hills Internet virtual community site

Offered webcams, free Web site space

Grew into GeoCities

Revenue source: advertising, pop-up pages

1999: purchased by Yahoo! ($5 billion)

Closed in 2009

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Early Web Communities (cont’d.)

1995: Tripod virtual community

Offered free Web page space, chat rooms, news, weather updates, health information pages

Revenue source: sold advertising

1995: Theglobe.com Cornell University class project

Included bulletin boards, chat rooms, discussion areas, personal ads

Added more features

Revenue source: sold advertising

Most early Web community businesses closed

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities

As the Internet and Web grew:

Experience of sharing new online communication faded

New phenomenon in online communication began

Multiple common bonds joined people with all types of common interests

Social networking sites

Allow individuals to create and publish a profile, create a list of other users with whom they share a connection (or connections), control that list, and monitor similar lists made by other users

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Social networking sites

Six Degrees (1997)

Friendster (2002)

Had features found in today’s social networking sites

LinkedIn: devoted to business connections

Tribe.net

YouTube: popularized video inclusion

MySpace: popular with younger Web users

Twitter

Users can send short messages to other users who sign up to follow their messages (tweets)

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Basic idea behind social networking

People invited to join by existing members

Site provides directory

New members work through friends established in the community

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FIGURE 6-1 (cont’d.) Social networking Web sites

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Web logs (Blogs)

Web sites containing individual commentary on current events or specific issues

Form of social networking site

Encourages interaction among people

Visitors add comments

Early blogs focused on technology topics

2004: blogs used as political networking tool

2008: all major candidates using blogs

Communicating messages, organizing volunteers, raising money, meetups

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Retailers embracing blogs to engage site visitors

Bluefly.com online discount apparel retailer

Flypaper blog

Ice.com online jeweler

Blogs may encourage potential customers to visit online store

Business uses

CNN

Blog information included in television newscasts

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Business uses (cont’d.)

Newspapers

Inviting information and opinion contributions

Targeting 18- to 35-year-old generation

Participatory journalism

Trend toward having readers help write the online newspaper

Blogs can become businesses in themselves

Must generate financial support (fees, advertising)

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Social networking Web sites for shoppers

Social shopping

Practice of bringing buyers and sellers together in a social network to facilitate retail sales

Example: craigslist

Operated by not-for-profit foundation

All postings free (except help wanted ads)

Example: EtsyWeb site

Marketplace for selling handmade items

We Love Etsy:Etsy buyers, sellers share information

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Social networking Web sites for shoppers (cont’d.)

Social networking sites form communities based on connections among people

Idea-based virtual communities

Communities based on connections between ideas

Idea-based networking

Participating in idea-based virtual communities

Examples: del.icio.us site, 43 Things site

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Virtual learning networks

Distance learning platforms for student-instructor interaction (Blackboard)

Tools include:

Bulletin boards, chat rooms, drawing boards

Moodle and uPortal

Open-source software projects devoted to virtual learning community development

Open-source software

Developed by a programmer community

Software available for download at no cost

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Social Networking in the Second Wave of Online Communities (cont’d.)

Web portals

Combine portal and social networking features

Typical portal offerings

Search engines, directories, free e-mail, news stories, weather reports

Social networking elements

Games and chat rooms

Allow site visitors to interact with each other

Examples:

Yahoo!, AOL, MSN

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Revenue Models for Social Networking Sites (cont’d.)

By late 1990s:

Revenue created by selling advertising

Used by virtual communities, search engine sites, Web directories

1998

Purchases and mergers occurred

New sites still used advertising-only revenue-generation model

Included features offered by virtual community sites, search engine sites, Web directories, other information-providing and entertainment sites

Goal: be every Web surfer’s doorway to the Web

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Revenue Models for Social Networking Sites (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Advertising-supported social networking sites

Smaller sites with specialized appeal

Can draw enough visitors to generate significant advertising revenue

Example: I Can Has Cheezburger site

Recall from Chapter 3:

Sites with higher number of visitors can charge more

Stickiness: important element in site’s attractiveness

Rough measure of stickiness

Time user spends at the site

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FIGURE 6-2 (cont’d.) Popularity and stickiness of leading Web sites

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Revenue Models for Social Networking Sites (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Advertising-supported social networking sites (cont’d.)

Social networking sites

Members provide demographic information

Potential for targeted marketing: very high

High visitor counts

Can yield high advertising rates

Second-wave advertising fees

Based less on up-front site sponsorship payments

Based more on revenue generation from continuing relationships with people who use the social networking sites

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Revenue Models for Social Networking Sites (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Mixed-revenue and fee-for-service social networking sites

Most social networking sites use advertising

Some charge a fee for some services

Examples: Yahoo! All-Star Games package, Yahoo! premium e-mail service

Monetizing

Converting site visitors into fee-paying subscribers or purchasers of services

Concern: visitor backlash

More examples: The Motley Fool and TheStreet.com

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Revenue Models for Social Networking Sites (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Fee-based social networking

Google Answers site

Early attempt to monetize social networking

Questions answered for a fee

Google operated service from 2002 to 2006

Similar free services

Yahoo! Answers, Amazon (Askville)

Uclue (paid researchers earn 75 percent of total fee)

Advocates claim better quality

Fee-based Web sites can generate revenue by providing virtual community interaction

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Revenue Models for Social Networking Sites (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Microlending sites

Function as clearinghouses for microlending activity

Microlending

Practice of lending very small amounts of money

Lend to people starting or operating small businesses (especially in developing countries)

Microlending key element

Working within social network of borrowers

Provide support, element of pressure to repay

Examples: Kiva and MicroPlace

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Revenue Models for Social Networking Sites (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Internal virtual communities

Provide social interaction among organization’s employees

Run on organization’s intranet

Save money (less paper)

Provide easy access to employee information

Good for geographically dispersed employees

Adding wireless connectivity

Combine second-wave technology with first-wave business strategy

Wireless communications with internal Web portals

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Mobile Commerce (cont’d.)

Short messaging service (SMS)

Allows mobile phone users to send short text messages to each other

2008: United States developments allowing phones as Web browsers

High-speed mobile telephone networks grew dramatically

Manufacturers offered range of smart phones with Web browser, operating system, applications

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Mobile Operating Systems and Applications (cont’d.)

Japan and Southeast Asia mobile commerce

Much larger online business activity

Had high-capacity networks early on

Mobile wallets

Mobile phones functioning as credit cards

Japan’s NTT DoCoMo phones combined capabilities

Generate significant business

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Mobile Operating Systems and Applications (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

United States mobile commerce capabilities began in 2008

Smart phone and high-capacity network introductions

Mobile commerce smart phone examples

Apple iPhone, Palm Pre, several BlackBerry models

Use the Android operating system

Provide serious U.S. mobile commerce for the first time

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FIGURE 6-3 (cont’d.) Smart phones come in a range of different styles

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Mobile Operating Systems and Applications (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Mobile commerce browser display options

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

Allows Web pages formatted in HTML to be displayed on devices with small screens

Display a normal Web page on the device

Made possible by increased screen resolution

Example: Apple iPhone

Design Web sites to match specific smart phones

Much more difficult to accomplish

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Mobile Operating Systems and Applications (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Mobile commerce browser display options (cont’d.)

Apple, BlackBerry, Palm

Use proprietary operating systems

HTC, Motorola, Nokia

At one time created their own operating systems and software applications

Now use a standard operating system provided by a third party

Most common third-party operating systems

Android, Windows Mobile, Symbian

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Mobile Operating Systems and Applications (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Common operating systems emergence

Occurred due to a change in the way software applications developed and sold

Old U.S. mobile phone company revenue strategy

Control application software

Apple turned old revenue strategy on its head

Apple Apps for iPhone online store

Independent developers create apps and sell them

BlackBerry and Palm followed Apple’s lead

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The Future of Mobile Commerce (cont’d.)

Companies wanting mobile user commerce

Review Web sites for compatibility

May create separate Web sites for mobile users

Mobile phones for online banking

In early stages in the United States

Physicians using smart phones

Phones’ global positioning satellite (GPS) service capabilities

Allow mobile business opportunities

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Online Auctions (cont’d.)

  • Business opportunity perfect for the Web

  • Auction site revenue sources

    • Charging both buyers and sellers to participate

    • Selling advertising

      • Targeted advertising opportunities available

  • Online auctions capitalize on Internet’s strength

    • Bring together geographically dispersed people sharing narrow interests

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Auction Basics (cont’d.)

  • From Babylon to the Roman Empire to Buddhists

  • Common activity of 17th century England

    • Sotheby’s (1744), Christie’s (1766), colonial auctions

  • Auction: seller offering item for sale

    • Bids: price potential buyer willing to pay

    • Bidders: potential buyers

    • Private valuations: amounts buyer willing to pay

    • Auctioneer: manages auction process

    • Shill bidders: work for seller or auctioneer

      • May artificially inflate price

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • English auctions

    • Bidders publicly announce successively higher bids

      • Item sold to highest bidder (at bidder’s price)

    • Also called ascending-price auction

    • Open auction (open-outcry auction)

      • Bids publicly announced

    • Minimum bid

      • Beginning price

      • If not met: item removed (not sold)

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • English auctions (cont’d.)

    • Reserve price (reserve)

      • Seller’s minimum acceptable price

      • Not announced

      • If not exceeded: item withdrawn (not sold)

    • Yankee auction

      • Multiple item units offered for sale (bidders specify quantity)

      • Highest bidder allotted bid quantity

      • Remaining items allocated to next highest bidders until all items distributed

      • Bidders pay lowest successful bidder price

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • English auctions (cont’d.)

    • Seller drawback

      • May not obtain maximum possible price

    • Buyer drawback

      • Winner’s curse psychological phenomenon

        • Bidder gets caught up in competitive bidding excitement

        • Bids more than their private valuation

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Dutch auctions

    • Open auction

      • Bidding starts at a high price

      • Drops until bidder accepts price

    • Also called descending-price auctions

    • Seller offers number of similar items for sale

    • Common implementation

      • Use a clock (price drops with each tick)

      • Bidders stop clock and take items at the given price

      • If items remain: clock restarted

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Dutch auctions (cont’d.)

    • Often better for the seller

    • Quickly move large numbers of commodity items

    • Successful examples:

      • Google initial public offering stock sale (2004)

      • LookSmart stock repurchase

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • First-price sealed-bid auctions

    • Sealed-bid auctions

      • Bidders submit bids independently

      • Prohibited from sharing information

    • First-price sealed-bid auction

      • Highest bidder wins

      • If multiple items auctioned: next highest bidders awarded remaining items at their bid price

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Second-price sealed-bid auction

    • Same as first-price sealed-bid auction

    • Except highest bidder awarded item at second-highest bidder price

    • Commonly called Vickrey auctions

  • William Vickrey: 1996 Nobel Prize in Economics

    • Findings:

      • Yields higher seller returns

      • Encourages all bidders to bid private valuation amounts

      • Reduces tendency for bidder collusion

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Open-outcry double auctions

    • Example: Chicago Board of Trade auctions of commodity futures and stock options

    • Buy and sell offers shouted by traders in trading pit

      • Each commodity, stock option traded in own pit

      • Quite frenzied

  • Double auctions (either sealed bid or open outcry)

    • Good for items of known quality traded in large quantities

    • No item inspection before bidding

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Double auctions

    • Buyers, sellers submit combined price-quantity bids

  • Auctioneer

    • Matches sellers’ offers

      • Starts with lowest price and then goes up

    • To buyers’ offers

      • Starts with highest price and then goes down until all quantities offered are sold

  • Operation format

    • Sealed bid or open-outcry

  • Example: New York Stock Exchange

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Auction Basics (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Reverse (seller-bid) auction

    • Multiple sellers submit price bids

      • Auctioneer represents single buyer

    • Bids for given amount of specific item to purchase

    • Prices go down as bidding continues:

      • Until no seller willing to bid lower

    • Occasionally operated for consumers

    • Most involve businesses as buyers and sellers

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FIGURE 6-4 (cont’d.) Key characteristics of seven major auction types

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.)

  • Online auction business: rapidly changing

  • Three auction Web site categories

    • General consumer auctions

    • Specialty consumer auctions

    • Business-to-business auctions

  • Varying opinions on categorizing consumer auctions

    • Business-to-consumer

    • Consumer-to-consumer

    • Consumer-to-business

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • General consumer auctions

  • eBay: registration required, seller fees, rating system

    • Seller’s risk: stolen credit cards; buyer fails to conclude transaction

    • Buyer’s risk: no item delivery; misrepresented item

    • Most common auction format: English auction

      • Seller may set reserve price

      • Bidders listed: bids not disclosed (until auction end)

      • Continually updated high bid amount displayed

      • Private auction option available

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • General consumer auctions (cont’d.)

    • Another eBay auction format: Dutch auction

    • Both formats require minimum bid increment

      • Amount by which one bid must exceed previous bid

    • Proxy bid

      • Bidder specifies maximum bid

      • May cause bidding to rise rapidly

    • eBay stores

      • Integrated into auction site

      • Sellers generate additional profits

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • eBay’s success due to unspecified audience

    • Also spends $1 billion each year to market and promote Web site

  • Major determinants of Web auction site success

    • Attracting enough buyers and sellers

  • Yahoo! Auction operation closed in 2007

  • Amazon.com with “Auctions Guarantee”

    • Offered buyer protection through escrow service

    • Closed in 2006

  • Overstock.com (still active)

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Future challengers to eBay

    • Must overcome lock-in effect

      • New auction participants inclined to patronize established marketplaces

    • Example: Japanese general consumer auction

      • Yahoo! first to enter market

        • Now dominates (more than 90% market share)

      • eBay maintains low market share (less than 3%)

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Specialty consumer auctions

    • Identify special-interest market targets

    • Create specialized Web auction sites

      • No need to compete with eBay

    • Examples:

      • JustBeads.com, Cigarbid.com, Winebid

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Consumer reverse auctions

  • Reverse bid

    • Visitor describes desired items or services

    • Site routes visitor to participating merchants

      • Reply to visitor by e-mail

      • Offer item at particular price

    • Buyer accepts

      • Lowest offer

      • Offer best matching buyer’s criteria

  • All these types of sites now closed

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Consumer reverse auctions (cont’d.)

  • Priceline.com

    • Considered a seller-bid auction site

    • Visitor states desired airline ticket, car rental, hotel room price

      • If sufficiently high price: transaction completed

    • Many transactions come from inventory

      • Priceline operates more as a liquidation broker

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Group shopping sites

    • Seller posts item with tentative price

    • Individual buyers enter bids

      • Agreement to buy one unit (no price provided)

      • Site negotiates with seller for lower price

    • Posted price decreases

      • As number of bids increases (only if number of bids increases)

    • Result: buyers force seller to reduce price

      • Similar to consumer reverse auction

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Group shopping sites (cont’d.)

  • Well-suited product types

    • Branded products, well-established reputations

      • Produces buyer confidence of good bargain

    • High value-to-size ratio, non-perishable

  • Disadvantages

    • Difficulty attracting sellers’ interest

    • Well-suited companies

      • Find no advantage, fear sites cannibalize product sales, reluctant to offend current distributors

  • Group purchasing sites closed

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Business-to-business auctions

    • Evolved to meet specific existing need

      • Excess inventory disposal (manufacturing)

    • Two methods

      • Liquidation specialists: find buyers for unusable items

      • Liquidation broker:firm that finds buyers for items

    • Online auctions

      • Logical extension of these inventory liquidation activities to a new and more efficient channel (Internet)

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Business-to-business auctions (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Emerging business-to-business Web auction models

Large-company model: creates own auction site

Small-company model: uses third-party Web auction site instead of liquidation broker

Both are direct descendants of traditional methods

Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.)

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Business-to-business auctions (cont’d.)

    • Third emerging business-to-business Web auction model

      • New business entity enters market lacking efficiency and creates a site at which buyers and sellers who have not historically done business with each other can participate in auctions

      • Resembles consumer online auctions

      • Example: hospitals using online auctions to fill temporary employment openings

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Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Business-to-business reverse auctions

    • Example: Owens Corning purchases

    • Examples: Agilent, Bechtel, Boeing, Raytheon, Sony

    • Potential disadvantage

      • Suppliers compete on price alone

      • Cut corners on quality or miss scheduled delivery dates

    • Potential advantage

      • Useful for nonstrategic commodity items with established quality standards

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Business-to-business reverse auctions (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

Companies opting out

Cisco, Cubic, IBM, Solar Turbines

If suppliers do not participate:

Impossible to conduct reverse auctions

If competition high among suppliers:

Reverse auctions provide efficient way to conduct, manage price bidding

Online Auctions and Related Businesses (cont’d.)

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FIGURE 6-5 (cont’d.) Supply chain characteristics and reverse auctions

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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.)

  • Entrepreneurs encouraged by eBay and other auction site growth

  • Provide various kinds of auction-related services

    • Escrow services

    • Auction directory and information services

    • Auction software for sellers and buyers

    • Auction consignment services

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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction escrow services

    • Buyers’ common concern: seller reliability

      • Buyers protect interests in high-value items

    • Independent party holds payment until:

      • Buyer receives item

      • Buyer satisfied item is as expected

    • May take delivery of item from seller

      • Perform buyer inspection (qualified to do so)

    • Charge fees

      • Percent of item’s cost; subject to minimum fee

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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction escrow services (cont’d.)

    • Examples: Escrow.com, eDeposit, Square Trade

    • May sell auction buyer’s insurance

      • Protect buyers from nondelivery and quality risks

    • Avoid escrow fraud

      • Determine if licensed, bonded (licensing agency)

      • Avoid offshore escrow companies entirely

    • Other buyer protections

      • Check seller’s rating

      • Use Web site listings of unreliable sellers

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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction directory and information services

    • Example: Auctionguide.com

      • Guidance for new auction participants

      • Helpful hints and tips for experienced participants

      • Directories of online auction sites

    • Example: AuctionBytes

      • Publishes e-mail newsletter

      • Online auction industry articles

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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction directory and information services (cont’d.)

    • Example: PriceWatch

      • Advertiser-supported site

      • Advertisers post current selling prices

      • Computer hardware, software, electronics

    • Example: PriceSCAN

      • Similar price-monitoring service

      • Also includes books, movies, music, sporting goods

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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction software

    • Target: sellers

      • Helps manage online auctions

    • Example: AuctionHawk and Vendio

      • Seller management software and services

      • Automate tasks

      • Create attractive page layouts

      • Manage hundreds of auctions

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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction software (cont’d.)

    • Target: buyers

      • Helps manage online auctions

    • Sniping software

      • Observes auction progress until last second

      • As auction expires: places bid high enough to win (unless bid exceeds sniping software owner’s limit)

      • Snipe:act of placing winning bid at the last second

      • Almost always wins out over human bidder

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition


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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction software (cont’d.)

    • Example: Cricket Sniping Software site

      • Created in 1997 by David Eccles

    • Companies offer sniping service

      • Sniping software runs on company Web site

      • Customer enters instructions on site

      • Company may offer subscriptions

      • Company may offer mixed-revenue model

    • Sniping software and services business information

      • AuctionBytesWeb site

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition


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FIGURE 6-6 (cont’d.) AuctionBytes home page

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition


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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction consignment services

    • Target: people and small businesses

      • Want to use online auction

      • Do not have skills, time to become a seller

    • Auction consignment services

      • Take item and create online auction for that item

      • Handle transaction

      • Remit proceeds balance (after deducting fee)

    • Main auction consignment businesses

      • ePowerSellers, iSold It, USA AuctionDrop

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition


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Auction-Related Services (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Auction consignment services (cont’d.)

    • Key to success

      • Convenient locations for customer drop off

      • Open own stores, franchise stores

  • Electronic commerce first wave

    • Online auction business made possible by the Web

  • Electronic commerce second wave

    • Online auction business created opportunities:

      • For even more entirely new types of business

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition


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Summary (cont’d.)

  • Companies using the Web for entirely new things

    • Creating social networks

    • Using mobile technologies to make sales and increase operational efficiency

    • Operating auction sites

    • Conducting related businesses

  • Businesses creating online communities to connect with customers and suppliers

  • Individuals using social networking sites

    • Personal and business-related interactions

  • Mobile commerce opportunities emerging

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition


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Summary (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Companies’ internal social networking sites

    • Facilitate employee communication

  • Online auctions used to sell goods to customers and buy from suppliers

    • Seven major auction types

    • Consumer online auction business dominated by eBay (United States)

    • Ancillary service businesses support auctions

  • B2B auctions and reverse auctions

    • New methods of inventory disposal, procurement

Electronic Commerce, Ninth Edition


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