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MEASURING DECENT WORK USING STATISTICAL INDICATORS. Richard Anker ILO Senior Advisor Strategy on Labour Statistics. OUTLINE SLIDE. Background on Advisory Group on Statistics (AGS) Why statistical indicators to measure decent work

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MEASURING DECENT WORK USING STATISTICAL INDICATORS

Richard Anker

ILO Senior Advisor

Strategy on Labour Statistics


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OUTLINE SLIDE

Background on Advisory Group on Statistics (AGS)

  • Why statistical indicators to measure decent work

  • What is decent work and possible organising frameworks for decent work statistical indicators

  • Specific indicators of decent work: Some possibilities

  • Some technical issues needing discussion and thought for identifying decent work indicators

  • Integrating Office work on measuring decent work: How to go about it


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BACKGROUND ON ADVISORY GROUP ON STATISTICS (AGS)

  • AGS report: Office-wide strategy and recommendations on statistics (available for dissemination)

  • Publication: ILO multi-country databases (available for dissemination)

  • Follow up

    • Need for integration across Office and Office working together (HQ & Field; STAT and Sectors)

    • Need for further development of statistics in Office (quality, coverage, dissemination, usability etc.)

    • Some specific newer needs (e.g. acceptable world estimates; comparable data series; state-of-world reports; improved data collection; measuring decent work)


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WHY STATISTICAL INDICATORS TO MEASURE DECENT WORK

  • To measure decent work objectively

  • To monitor and evaluate situation progress on decent work

  • To communicate with constituents and public

  • To provide framework for organising and focussing ILO work

  • To provide framework for technical advice


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NEED FOR STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF DECENT WORK

“ One important area in which we clearly need to invest is our information systems. In order to effectively promote the goal of decent work for all, the Office must be able to measure and monitor progress and deficits, and to respond to the demands of constituents and the general public for information about these issues. We have to have up-to-date and readily usable information on all aspects of decent work which can support diagnosis, evaluation and policy design.

We need to make a major investment in the design and implementation of our data and statistical base. We have defined our four strategic objectives and we now need to measure our progress. “ (Director General, ILC, 2001)


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WHAT IS DECENT WORK AND POSSIBLE ORGANISING FRAMEWORKS FOR DECENT WORK STATISTICAL INDICATORS

  • Many possible frameworks and examples

  • Four ILO pillars are best for ILO

  • AGS list

  • Other ILO lists (e.g. AGS; DW/PP; KILM; SES/IFP; LABORSTA; Multi-country databases)

  • Other non-ILO lists (e.g. EU)

  • Considerable further work and thought required to establish Decent Work indicator lists

    NOTE: SERIES OF LISTS ARE INCLUDED AT THE END OF THESE NOTES


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“There are four main dimensions DECENT WORK STATISTICAL INDICATORS[of decent work]: (i) work and employment itself; (ii) rights at work; (iii) security; and (v) representation and dialogue.

There are questions of both quanitity and quality [for employment]. It is not enough to have work; we also have to take into account the content of this work… The employment goal is best expressed as adequate opportunities for productive and meaningful work in decent conditions….

Basic rights at work have been expressed in the ILO’s core labour standards… Security is a powerful need. Work [can be insecure] because it is irregular or temporary, or income varies, or it is physically risky…

Representation and dialogue is the way in which people’s voices can be heard [at work]. It is through social dialogue that widespread support fro the other three dimensions of decent work may be built” (Gerry Rodgers, 2001)


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SOME TECHNICAL ISSUES NEEDING DISCUSSION AND THOUGHT FOR IDENTIFYING DECENT WORK INDICATORS

Discussion less necessary (more like statements)

  • Need for international comparable data series (at present, much more data available for Employment issues among four Sectors)

  • Need for restricted core list of DW indicators for international comparability

  • Need for longer lists of DW indicators for national exercises

  • Data availability vs. desirability/relevance (different choices for internationally comparable data series and national excercises)

  • Need for absolute measures and relative measures (e.g. “low “ pay; “poverty “; working poor)


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Discussion important IDENTIFYING DECENT WORK INDICATORS

  • Need for qualitative indicators (e.g. rights; perceptions; laws) and quantitative indicators for labour market outcomes (e.g. employment; wages)

  • Need to measure at macro (international/national/regional), meso (enterprise), and micro (individual/household) levels

    • Conceptual relevance differences by level

    • Limitations and advantages of data sources from each aggregation level

    • Possibility of collecting new data vs. only using available data


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Some examples of national level and individual level indicators for similar phenomenon


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Examples of results from perception questions from People’s Security Surveys of IFP/SES


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  • Discussion necessary People’s Security Surveys of IFP/SES

  • Aggregation into one number vs. reporting separate aspects only

    • National Decent Work Index (DWI) vs. only aspects of decent work

    • Type of job/work vs. only elements of job/work

  • Universality vs. vary by development level or region (e.g. allowing relative importance/weights to differ by region/development level)



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INTEGRATING OFFICE WORK ON MEASURING DECENT WORK: HOW TO GO ABOUT IT?

  • Need for Office-wide effort and co-operation

    • Data users and producers working together

    • Field and HQ working together for collection

    • Sectors and field discussions to identify specific indicators

    • DCOMM and improving communications and headline world estimates

  • Need for senior management to monitor activities and ensure Office-wide integration

  • Need for national DW exercises

  • Need for international comparable data series


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  • Philippe Egger and Werner Sengenberger, Decent Work Issues and Policies, January 2001

    • Access to employment (voluntarily)

    • Fair and equal treatment in employment (no discrimination or harassment)

    • Decent remuneration of work (and living wage)

    • Fair conditions of work (intensity and overwork and hours)

    • Safe work environment (and conditions)

    • Protection in case of unemployment

    • Social protection and employment (work-related problems and old age)

    • Employment and training opportunities (to develop skills)

    • Participation (in decisions affecting one directly) and motivation

    • Voice and collective participation

      • Possibility to voice complaints and grievances

      • Workers groups


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AGS LIST OF TOPIC AREAS and Policies, January 2001

  • Labour utilisation and employment

  • Labour under-utilisation and labour stock

  • Social dialogue and worker representation

  • Quality and security of work

  • Core labour standards and fundamental rights at work

  • Worker protection and vulnerability

  • Wages and income

  • Labour costs and labour productivity

  • Poverty and inequality


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SPECIFIC INDICATORS OF DECENT WORK: and Policies, January 2001SOME POSSIBILITIES (AGS REPORT)


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QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT and Policies, January 2001(EUROPEAN COMMISSION)

  • Intrinsic job quality

  • Skills and life-long earning

  • Gender equality

  • Health and safety at work

  • Flexibility and security

  • Inclusion and access to the labour market

  • Work organisation and work-life balance

  • Social dialogue and worker participation

  • Diversity and non discrimination

  • Overall work performance


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KILM VARIABLES and Policies, January 2001

LABOUR FORCE ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY

  • Labour force participation rate

  • Inactivity rate for persons 25-54

    EMPLOYMENT

  • Employment to population ratio

  • Employment status

  • Employment by sector

  • Part-time employment

  • Hours of work

  • Urban information sector employment


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UNEMPLOYMENT and Policies, January 2001

  • Unemployment, total

  • Youth unemployment rate

  • Long-term unemployment rate

  • Unemployment by educational attainment

  • Underemployment (time-related)

    EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND ILLITERACY

    WAGE AND LABOUR COSTS AND PRODUCTIVITY

  • Real manufacturing wage indices

  • Hourly compensation costs

  • Labour productivity

  • Unit labour costs

    POVERTY AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION


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MULTI-COUNTRY STATISTICAL DATABASES and Policies, January 2001IN STAT

Employment and unemployment

  • ILO Umbrella database on labour statistics (LABORSTA)

  • ILO Comparable employment and unemployment estimates

  • Informal sector employment

  • Employment and unemployment

    • (monthly, quarterly, half-yearly)

  • Economically active population

  • Employment and unemployment

  • Sex segregation of occupations

  • Public sector employment

  • Economically active population 1950-2010


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Wages and Policies, January 2001

  • Wages

  • Minimum wages

  • Hours of work and wages

    • (monthly, quarterly, half-yearly)

  • Wages and hours of work

    Prices

  • Food prices (October Inquiry)

  • Consumer prices (annual)

  • Consumer prices (monthly)

    Other

  • Trade union membership

  • Occupational injuries

  • Strikes and lockouts

  • Hours of work

  • Labour cost in manufacturing

  • Household income and expenditure statistics


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